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Gujarat technological university

Branch :Diploma 1st Sem CIVIL,MECH,ELECTRICAL,COMPUTER Sub :Environmental Conversation hazard management

Aarsh Mahavidyalaya RAJKOT

Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

Introduction Natural disasters Ecological Aspect of Environment

Fundamental of Seismic Engineering

Natural Resources

Clean Technologies

Global Environmental Problems Environmental pollution

Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

Chap. 1

INTRODUCTION

1. Introduction

2. Environment 3. Division of Environment 4. Slogans for Environmental Protection


Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

1.1 INTRODUCTION
For

an environmental engineer the environment may carry different meaning. It may regarding study of air pollution, water pollution, thermal pollution or land pollution.

Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

1.2 Environment
Defination:

External surrounding and condition directly or indirectly affect the living organism is known as environment.
Human Being
Sand

Plants

Mineral

Animals

Air, Food, Wind

BIOTIC

ABIOTIC

Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

1.3 DIVISION OF ENVIRONMENT

1 Atmosphere

2 Lithosphere

3 Hydrosphere

4 Biosphere

Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

1.3.1 Atmosphere
Earth

was formed before four to five billion years and probably there was no atmosphere at that time. The constituents of the atmosphere are nitrogen 78%, oxygen 21%, and gases like argon,carbon dioxide, helium are in teases. The Concentration of Carbon Dioxide increases by about 1.5 ppm per Year The atmosphere is subdivided into four regions.
Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

ATMOSPHERIC REGIONS
SR.NO NAME OF THE REGIONS 1 2 3 4 Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere HEIGHT IN KM. 0-11 11-50 50-85 85-100 TEMPERATURE 15 to -56 -56 to -2 -2 to -92 -92 to 1200

Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

TROPOSPHERE
Very

important layer touching earth surface. 90%of part atmosphere is covered in this layer. This layer consist oxygen, nitrogen,He, H2,clouds,vapor and sand particles. Height of this layer varies from 0km t0 11km. Air pollutants are much more active in this layer.

Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

STRAT0SPHERE
Layer

above troposphere. No presence of vapour,cloud or sand particle. Ozone is much more present in this layer. Height of this layer varies from 11km to 50km. The earth temperature is maintained due to presence of ozone in this layer.

Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

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MESOSPHERE
Atmospheric

pressure in this layer is very

less. Layer above the stratosphere . Height of this layer varies from 50km to 85km. Very cold layer. Gases are active in this layer.

Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

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THERMOSPHERE
Layer

above the mesosphere. Height of this layer varies from 85km to 100km. High temperature is observed due to energy absorption from sun. This layer was used to reflect radio waves before invention of satellite.

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1.3.2. LITHOSPHERE
Plants and vegetation are included in lithosphere. Suitable soil layer support vegetation. As a result of geological processes occurring in nature. Rocks disintegrate continuously and formulation of soil takes place gradully. Depending on different types of soil,variety of food crops can be grown. Soil texture like fine,granular depend on the qualitative composition of soil particle size in the soil mass.

Aarsh Mahavidyalaya Prepared By :Bhavesh Sir

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1.3.3. Hydrosphere
Water

available in oceans,seas, rivers,streams,lakes, under ground aquifers is know as hydrosphere . Major constituent of man, animal and plant is water. Water is essential for life as well as for civilization. About 97% of water is in ocean and 2% water is in the form is in the form of ice caps and glaciers. Remaining only 1% water is in river,stream and lakes for drinking purpose.
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1.3.4. BIOSPHERE
The

shallow outer crust of the earth which includes all the living organisms and their environmental. It extends from the lowest sea bed level to highest point up to about 24km of the atmosphere. Life exists in biosphere. The lives are also available in this biosphere.

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1.4 SLOGANS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


Grow

trees, save energy. Water is life. Save water, save energy. Use solar cooker save lpg. Use nirdhum chullah, enjoy working. Develop without destruction. Use less polluting raw material. Maintain vehicle in good condition. Grow trees on Road & Canal sides.
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