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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Introduction
Types of pollution Water pollution

Water treatment plant


Air pollution Noise pollution Land pollution Thermal pollution

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TYPES OF POLLUTION
Water pollution
Air pollution Noise pollution

Sand pollution
Thermal pollution

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WATER POLLUTION
Bacteria,Viruses,Protozoa, Parasitic worms
Oxygen demanding substances Inorganic plant nutrients

Organic chemicals
Sediment or suspended matter Thermal pollution Genetic pollution

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A person needs about 1 gallon water/day for

hydration In the US each person uses about 188 gallons/day An additional 657 gallons/person/day are used for irrigation, industrial use. Total per capita use is about 2000 gal/person/day If worlds water supply were 100 liters, the usable supply would be about 0.5 tsp US has highest per capita water withdrawal, followed by Canada, Australia, Russia, Japan
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WATER TREATMENT PLANT

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Primary
removal by physical separation of grit and large objects

(material to landfill for disposal)

Secondary
aerobic microbiological process (sludge)

organic matter + O2 CO2 + NH3 + H2O NH3 NO3- lowers suspended solids content (into sludge)
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Tertiary (advanced)
anaerobic microbiological process with a different

microbe where O2 is toxic (more sludge) NO3- N2 (escapes to atmosphere)


PO4-3 if not removed in sludge in secondary process

PO4-3 + Al+3 AlPO4 (s) (into sludge) - aeration to strip N2 and re-oxygenate (add DO)

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AIR POLLUTION
Air pollution and weather are linked in two ways. One way

concerns the influence that weather conditions have on the dilution and dispersal of air pollutants. The second way is the reverse and deals with the effect that air pollution has on weather and climate. Air is never perfectly clean. Examples of natural air pollution include:
Ash, salt particles, pollen and spores, smoke and windblown dust
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AIR POLLUTION

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Air Pollutant Types


Although some types of air pollution are recent creations, others,

such as London's infamous smoke pollution, have been around for centuries. One of the most tragic air pollution episodes ever occurred in London in December 1952 when more than fourthousand people died. Air pollutants are airborne particles and gasses that occur in concentrations that endanger the heath and well-being of organisms or disrupt the orderly functioning of the environment. Pollutants can be grouped into two categories:
(1) primary pollutants, which are emitted directly from identifiable

sources, and (2) secondary pollutants, which are produced in the atmosphere when certain chemical reactions take place among primary pollutants.
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Primary Pollutants
The major primary pollutants include:
particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide, and lead.

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NOISE POLLUTION
Sound that is unwanted or disrupts ones quality of life is

called as noise. When there is lot of noise in the environment, it is termed as noise pollution. activities such as working, sleeping, and during conversations. that we cant see, smell, or taste it.

Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal

It is an underrated environmental problem because of the fact World Health Organization stated that Noise must be

recognized as a major threat to human well-being


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Sources of Noise Pollution


Transportation systems are the main source of noise pollution

in urban areas.

Construction of buildings, highways, and streets cause a lot of

noise, due to the usage of air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks, and pavement breakers. noise pollution.

Industrial noise also adds to the already unfavorable state of Loud speakers, plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners,

fans, and vacuum cleaners add to the existing noise pollution.


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Health Effects
According to the USEPA, there are direct links between noise

and health. Also, noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. health.

Noise pollution can damage physiological and psychological High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep disruption,

hearing loss, and productivity loss are the problems related to noise pollution. attacks.

It can also cause memory loss, severe depression, and panic


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LAND POLLUTION
When any liquid pollutant is on or just below the

ground surface for any period of time, one of three things could happen to it, if it is not cleaned up first. 1- pollutant might be washed away by precipitation, causing little or no harm to the ground on which it was found ( however, pollutants will simply accumulate somewhere else)

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2- the pollutant, if volatile, could evaporate, again

causing little harm to the soil ( however, not a solution to the bigger pollution problem, as it might become a source of air pollution). 3- pollutant could infiltrate through the unsaturated soil, in much the same way as ground water.

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Soil Pollution
Information needed to clean up materials added

to soil include: 1) Kind of material - organic or inorganic - is the material biodegradable, is the material dangerous to animals and humans, 2) how much material was added to the soil, will it overload the organisms in the soil; 3) C:N ratio of the material, are additional nutrients needed ( N & P)
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4) Kind of Soil - will the soil be able to handle the material before groundwater is contaminated, 5) Growing conditions for the soil organisms is it too cold, too wet etc. 6) How long has the material been on the site - is there evidence of environmental problems, is it undergoing decomposition. 7) Immediate danger to people and the environment - Urgency of the situation.
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THERMAL POLLUTION
Increase in the normal temperatures of natural waters

caused by intervention of human activities.

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Major Causes
Nuclear power plants
Deforestation Soil erosion

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Nuclear Power Plants


Nuclear power plants use water as a cooling agent.
After the water is used, it is put back into a water

supply at 9-20oC warmer

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Effects of Increased Water Temperature


Thermal shock aquatic life adapted to a certain water temperature can go into shock when the temp is changed even 1 or 2 degrees. Oxygen dissolved in water decreases Increases the rate of photosynthesis, which increases the amount of plant growth Increases the metabolic rate of fish, which increases their need for oxygen

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