# Precipitation planning remarks

Remember I hate the read the same words 2 or 3 times!!!!

Hypothesis
I think that if more magnesium sulphate is added then more precipitate of magnesium carbonate will form.

This is because there are more magnesium sulphate molecules to react with the sodium carbonate molecules – so more precipitate can form. Also there are more collisions as there are more molecules and so there are more reactions.

Apparatus – list all and explain briefly
Balance – to measure mass of filter paper and filter paper + precipitate Conical flask – to collect filtrate Filter funnel and filter paper – to collect precipitate Measuring cylinder – to measure volumes of solutions accurately Stirring rod – to mix solutions thoroughly Oven – to dry the magnesium carbonate sample Solutions of sodium carbonate and magnesium sulphate – can be used to make a precipitate Goggles – eye protection Beakers – to contain the solutions

Controls: list and explain how controlled
Volume of solutions – measuring cylinder Concentration of solutions – made using the same mass of chemical in the same volume of water Each volume of magnesium sulphate used should have water added to make the used volume 25 cm3 Stirring – same person / same number of stirs each minute Oven – do not change control settings

Risks: risk + how managed
Chemicals are used – Mg sulphate and sodium carb both low hazard but wear eye protection Oven – could get burnt so set a lower temperature e.g. 40 – 50 ⁰C / wearing insulating gloves Spills – clean up quickly

Plan
A good example was given to you as a photocopy from page 135 Problems: • describing 1 volume of mg sulphate only – no range given • A vague ‘other volumes of mg sulphate will be used’ Most importantly…… how will the data you collect help you to test your hypothesis????

Data collected helping test hypothesis
Needs to be added: How will your expt help prove the hypothesis is true? Good answer: I will be able to show that the mass of mg carb formed depends on the volume of mg sulphate used as I am doing this experiment over a range of values of magnesium sulphate solution volumes [10, 15, 20 and 25 cm3 ]. I think I will be able to see if less or the same volume of each solution is needed to get the maximum mass of precipitate.

Onward: I am giving you a table to fill your results into. Note units in headings only – NOT in the spaces you fill in with only numbers Next time you will have to make your own tables Check out: book page 65 Secondary evidence: 2 sources referred to in text. Reliability of sources [text books/scientific journals good need to know the source of the info] Check out: book page 59

• Processing Data Calculate mass of ppt Line graph [headings + axis labels] Line of best fit
• Quality of evidence Are there any anomalies? If not, say so!! If there are…exclude them so they do not change the true data Are there anomalies in your secondary data?

• Conclusions based on evidence Did your results show that the mass of ppt increased as you increased the amount of mg sulphate? Is that supported by the results of your secondary data? Can you explain this scientifically? The mg and carb ions combine to make an insoluble salt mg carb. If there are more mg ions then more ppt can be made. The result should be directly proportional [mathematical relationship given i.e. if I use twice as much mg sulphate, I should get twice as much mg carb].

• Evaluation of conclusion More primary [repetitions] and secondary data needed Did you get a clear pattern of results?  good Do your results agree with what you expected from your scientific ideas?  good Did you have no/few anomalies?  good • Extend Was the ppt totally dry? Should we have left it longer and weighed again to make sure the mass was constant and all the water gone? What would happen if we added more mg sulphate?

• Evaluation of method Did any mg carb remain in the beaker? How could we make sure we got it all? Did you make mg carb or something else? chemical tests. Are all your graph points on the line of best fit? Were some lower or higher? Heat + weigh, heat + weigh until the mass is constant [then you know all the water is gone] Wash more times to know ppt pure