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ASYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION MOTORS

Induction Motors

BYMUKTA JAIN 12MEA0005

INTRODUCTION
A type of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction. Widely used in industrial drives, particularly polyphase induction motors. Their speed is determined by the frequency of the supply current, so they are most widely used in constant-speed applications. Two basic design types depending on the rotor design squirrel-cage wound-rotor

COMPARISON
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
1. SPEED- This motor runs at synchronous speed whatever the amount of load it may be. 2. Starting Torque- This motor does not have any self starting torque. 3. Excitation: Synchronous motor is a doubly excited machine. 4. Efficiency: This is comparatively more efficient than induction motor. 5. Cost: This kind of motor is much costlier that a similar rating induction motor.

ASYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
1. SPEED- This motor runs at less than synchronous speed and it is dependent of load. 2. Starting Torque: This kind of motor has its own self starting torque. 3. Excitation: It is a singly excited machine.

4. Efficiency: It is comparatively less efficient 5. Cost: The cost of induction machine is less when compared with a synchronous motor of same rating.

INDUCTIONMOTOR

Construction
a revolving rotor
composed of punched laminations, stacked to create a series of rotor slots, providing space for the rotor winding one of two types of rotor windings conventional 3-phase windings made of insulated wire (wound-rotor) similar to the winding on the stator aluminum bus bars shorted together at the ends by two aluminum rings, forming a squirrel-cage shaped circuit (squirrel-cage)

Two basic design types depending on the rotor design


squirrel-cage: conducting bars laid into slots and shorted at both ends by shorting rings. wound-rotor: complete set of three-phase windings exactly as the stator. Usually Y-connected, the ends of the three rotor wires are connected to 3 slip rings on the rotor shaft. In this way, the rotor circuit is accessible.

An induction motor has two main parts


a stationary stator
consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow, cylindrical core core, constructed from stacked laminations (why?), having a number of evenly spaced slots, providing the space for the stator winding

Stator of IM

Types of Rotor windings


Squirrel cage rotor

Wound rotor

Notice the slip rings

Slip rings

Cutaway in a typical woundrotor IM. Notice the brushes and the slip rings

Brushes

Principle of operation
This rotating magnetic field cuts the rotor windings and produces an induced voltage in the rotor windings Due to the fact that the rotor windings are short circuited, for both squirrel cage and wound-rotor, and induced current flows in the rotor windings The rotor current produces another magnetic field A torque is produced as a result of the interaction of those two magnetic fields

ind kBR Bs
Where ind is the induced torque and BR and BS are the magnetic flux densities of the rotor and the stator respectively

ITS A TIME FOR CHANGE


Need to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. The induction motor is a potential alternative to the permanent magnet motor. These motors have comparable torque and efficiency, along with a rugged, durable design. No drag loss when the motor turns on and no loss in efficiency at high speed or at low torque conditions. 20 percent less costly to manufacture. Well suited for hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

DRAWBACKS
Speed control is a challenge. Speed decreases as load increases, unlike Synchronous motors. But new technology in the form of VFDs (variable speed drives) is now rectifying this situation very effectively. Low starting torque, unlike Direct Current motors.