# Performance of Transmission Line

Line Parameters-Part 2
Introduction
 Performance Parameters
 Efficiency

 Regulation
R I P
P
Losses Output
Output
Ef f iciency
r
÷
=
×
+
= ×
+
=
Regulation %
100
3
100 %
2
FL R
FL R NL R
V
V V
_
_ _
÷
=
Distributed and Lumped Parameters
Transmission line with
uniformly distributed line
parameters (R, L, C, G)
Small section ∆x
I(x)
z ∆x
y ∆x
V(x) V(x+ ∆x)
I(x+ ∆x)
V
s
I
s
V
r
I
r
 z = Series impedance /unit
length/phase
 y = Shunt admittance / unit
length/phase
 l = Length of transmission line
 Z = Total series impedance/
phase
 Y = Total shunt impedance/
phase
Transmission Line Models
 Short line : Length less than 80 km.
 Lumped parameter model
 Medium line: Length between 80 km to 200 km.
 Shunt admittance needs to be considered
 Lumped parameter model
 Nominal π model
 Nominal T model
 Long line: Length longer than 200 km.
 Distributed parameter model
 Shunt admittance effect is important
 Equivalent π or T equivalent can be derived

ABCD Parameters of Transmission Line
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

R
R
S
S
I
V
D C
B A
I
V
Matrix Format
D A
=
= ÷ 1
Passive, Linear, bilateral
Short Transmission Line
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

R
R
S
S
I
V Z
I
V
1 0
1
Matrix Format
A=1, B=Z, C=0, D=1
Regulation of Short Transmission Line
I=I
R
=I
S
V
S
V
R
IR

IX

IZ

ϕ

( ) ( )
2 2
sin cos X I V R I V V
R R S
+ + + = | |
| | | | sin 2 sin sin 2 cos
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
X I V X I V R I V R I V V
R R R R S
+ + + + + =
( )
2 2 2 2
sin 2 sin 2 X R I IX V IR V V V
R R R S
+ + + + = | |
( )
2
2 2 2
sin 2 sin 2
1
R R R
R S
V
X R I
V
IX
V
IR
V V
+
+ + + =
| |
Small quantity
Regulation of Short Transmission Line
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
R R
R S
V
IX
V
IR
V V
| | sin 2 sin 2
1
.......
16 8 2
1 1
3 2
+ + ÷ + = +
x x x
x
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
R R
R S
V
IX
V
IR
V V
| | sin sin
1
| | sin sin IX IR V V
R S
+ + =
R R
R
R S
V
X I
V
R I
V
V V
| | sin sin
Regulation
Regulation
+ =
÷
=
100
3
%
2
×
+
=
R I P
P
q
Medium Transmission Line
 Medium transmission lines are modelled with lumped

 Nominal π Representation
 Nominal T Representation

Nominal π Representation
Nominal π Representation
Therefore A, B, C, D parameters
Nominal T Representation
M M R R M
YV I I
Z
V V = + = and
2
I
M
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
R R R R R S
I I
Z
V Y
Z
I
Z
V V
2 2 2
Nominal T Representation
Therefore A, B, C, D parameters
Long Line Model
Ax ÷ 0
Ax ÷ 0
Long Line Model
And
Again differentiating with respect to x
Solution of the
differential Eqn.
Long Line Model
Differentiating with respect to x
We know that
Therefore
Long Line Model
Long Line Model
At x = 0.
V = V
R
and I = I
R

And
Solving for A
1
and A
2
Long Line Model
R
l l
R
l l
C
S
R
l l
C R
l l
S
I
e e
V
e e
Z
I
I
e e
Z V
e e
V
|
|
.
|

\
| +
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
2 2
1
2 2
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
We are interested in terminal conditions: x = l we have V = V
s

and I = I
S

Long Line Model
R
l l
R
l l
C
S
R
l l
C R
l l
S
I
e e
V
e e
Z
I
I
e e
Z V
e e
V
|
|
.
|

\
| +
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
2 2
1
2 2
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
R R
C
S
R C R S
I l V l
Z
I
I l Z V l V
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
cosh sinh
1
sinh cosh
+ =
+ =
Long Line Model
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
R R
C
S
R C R S
I l V l
Z
I
I l Z V l V
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
cosh sinh
1
sinh cosh
+ =
+ =
The ABCD parameters of the long transmission line

Introduction

Performance Parameters

Efficiency

Output P % Efficiency 100  100 2 Output  Losses P  3I r R

Regulation

No Load Voltage  Full load Voltage VR _ NL  VR _ FL %Regulation   Full load Voltage VR _ FL

G) Ir Vr Small section ∆x  I(x+ ∆x) V(x+ ∆x) y ∆x z ∆x I(x) V(x)     z = Series impedance /unit length/phase y = Shunt admittance / unit length/phase l = Length of transmission line Z = Total series impedance/ phase Y = Total shunt impedance/ phase .Distributed and Lumped Parameters Is Vs Transmission line with uniformly distributed line parameters (R. C. L.

Transmission Line Models  Short line : Length less than 80 km.    Distributed parameter model Shunt admittance effect is important Equivalent π or T equivalent can be derived .   Shunt admittance is neglected Lumped parameter model Shunt admittance needs to be considered Lumped parameter model    Medium line: Length between 80 km to 200 km.   Nominal π model Nominal T model  Long line: Length longer than 200 km.

Linear.ABCD Parameters of Transmission Line Passive. bilateral Matrix Format VS   A B   I   C D   S  VR  I   R AD  BC  1 A D .

C=0. D=1 . B=Z.Short Transmission Line Matrix Format VS  1 Z  VR   I   0 1   I    R  S  A=1.

Regulation of Short Transmission Line VS IZ VR IR IX ϕ VS  V R cos   I R   VR sin   I X  2 2 I=IR=IS VS  VR2 cos2   I 2 R 2  2 VR I R sin   VR2 sin 2   I 2 X 2  2 VR I X sin  VS  VR2  2VR IR sin   2VR IX sin   I 2 R 2  X 2 VS  VR 2 IR sin  2 IX sin  I 2 R 2  X 2 1   VR VR VR2   Small quantity   .

.. 2 8 16 VS  VR  IR sin   IX sin  Regulation  Regulation  VS  VR VR I R sin  VR  I X sin  VR P %   100 2 P  3I R ..Regulation of Short Transmission Line VS  VR  2 IR sin  2 IX sin    1    V  VR R    IR sin  IX sin    VS  VR 1    VR VR    x x2 x3 1 x  1    ....

Medium Transmission Line  Medium transmission lines are modelled with lumped series impedance and shunt admittance.  Nominal π Representation  Nominal T Representation .

Nominal π Representation .

B.Nominal π Representation Therefore A. D parameters . C.

Nominal T Representation IM Z VM  VR  I R and I M  YVM 2  Z Z  Z  VS  VR  I R   Y VR  I R   I R   2 2  2    .

B.Nominal T Representation Therefore A. D parameters . C.

Long Line Model x  0 x  0 .

.Long Line Model And Again differentiating with respect to x Solution of the differential Eqn.

Long Line Model Differentiating with respect to x We know that Therefore .

Long Line Model .

V = VR and I = IR Solving for A1 and A2 .Long Line Model And At x = 0.

Long Line Model We are interested in terminal conditions: x = l we have V = Vs and I = IS  el  e l   el  e l  VR  Z C  I R VS       2 2      el  e l  1  el  e l   VR   I R IS      ZC  2 2    .

Long Line Model  el  e l   el  e l  VR  Z C  I R VS       2 2      el  e l  1  el  e l   VR   I R IS      ZC  2 2    VS  coshl VR  Z C sinhl I R 1 IS  sinhl VR  coshl I R ZC .

Long Line Model VS  coshl VR  Z C sinhl I R 1 IS  sinhl VR  coshl I R ZC The ABCD parameters of the long transmission line .