Plumbing Systems for Buildings

ARC 473/573


Common Plumbing Systems
      

Sanitary Drainage System Storm Drainage System Domestic Water System Domestic Water Heating System Plumbing Fixtures Plumbing Specialties Miscellaneous Plumbing Systems

Sanitary Drainage System

Conveys Waste and Sewage from all plumbing fixtures to an approved or “acceptable” disposal location

Community sewer system

Sewage is treated, and returned to the environment
Septic field (See Section 11.6 MEEB)

Local sewage disposal system


type “DWV” Plastic pipe.Drainage Pipe Materials  Commonly Used Materials • • • Cast Iron Pipe Copper pipe. type “PVC” 4 .

and to collect waste water. extends to 5 ft beyond outside wall. as well as human waste. 5 . Building Drain – horizontal pipe which collects all soil and waste stacks.Components of Sanitary Drainage Systems       A plumbing fixture is any device used to supply water for use. piping. Soil & Waste Stacks – vertical pipe collecting discharge from fixtures and fixture branches. waste products. Waste and sewage drain by gravity. wherever possible. Fixture branch – horizontal drainage pipe collecting drainage from plumbing fixtures.

etc. Building trap – a trap installed in the building drain to prevent gases. on horizontal lines. at base of waste or soil stacks. a fresh air inlet is required to prevent siphoning the trap seal.Components of Sanitary Drainage System (Cont’d)    Building Sewer – Extends from a point 5 ft. at change of direction of piping g. Cleanout – a provision in the sanitary drainage piping to cleanout blockages. Required every 100 ft. 45 degrees. When used. 6 . outside building and discharges to community sewer. from entering the building thru the sewer. rodents.t. or private disposal system.

one to back up the other. referred to as soil pipe. two pumps are used. 7 .Components of Sanitary Drainage System (Cont’d)   Drainage piping conveying discharge from water closets. • Generally. A sewage ejection pump is used for toilet rooms below the level of the sanitary sewer.



Sanitary Drainage Plan for Branch Bank


Isometric Detail of Sanitary Drainage Piping


Every plumbing fixture requires a trap. Each time the fixture is used. Traps prone to evaporation (floor drains) require a means of replenishing the trap. 11 . Water closets and urinals generally have built-in traps. a small amount of water remains in the pipe or trapway. The trap serves to seal out methane and other harmful gases that reside in the sewer.Traps and Venting       A plumbing trap is a device used to provide a water seal at the outlet of a plumbing fixture.

Fixture Trap and Vent 12 .

Fixture Trap 13 .

and minimum 1-1/4” diameter.Venting       Lavatories. creates partial vacuum behind – tends to create unbalanced pressure in piping. or suction out the water forming the trap seal. drinking fountains generally have traps made from pipe. Each fixture trap must be vented to atmosphere (outdoors) Water and waste accelerating down pipe pushes air in front. floor drains. sinks. Individual fixture vent pipes must be ½ the diameter of the fixture drain. The vent serves to relieve excess pressures that could blow out. A vent is a separate pipe connected to the fixture drain pipe downstream of the trap. 14 .

Plumbing Fixtures  Water Closet • Operates by principal of siphon   Refer to ANSI A117.1 for Barrier Free Design requirements Types • • • • Flush Tank – typically for residential use Flush Valve – typically for non-residential use Floor mounted – typically for residential use Wall mounted – typically for non-residential use  Requires Fixture Carrier 15 .

Plumbing Fixtures (Cont’d)  Urinals • • Wall Hung Floor (rarely used)  Lavatories  Wall Hung  Splash back (most common)  Slab  Shelf Back  Ledge Back   In Counter Under Counter 16 .

17 . non-metering: .2 gpm at 60 psi Lavatory. private: 2.25 gallons per metering cycle Sink faucet: 2. public. public.Maximum Flow Rates and Consumption of Plumbing Fixtures        Water closet: 1.5 gpm at 80 psi Lavatory.6 gallons/flush Urinal: 1.2 gpm at 60 psi.0 gallons/flush Shower head: 2. metering: .5 gpm at 60 psi Lavatory.

“Afwall” 18 . Wall Hung Water Closet  American Standard Corp.Flush Valve.

Water Closet “Fixture Carrier”    Steel carrier bolts to floor Cantilevered water closet bolts to carrier Josam Corporation 19 .

Flush Valve. Floor Mounted Water Closet    Does not require a fixture carrier Floor maintenance is more difficult American Standard Corp. “Madera” 20 .

Floor Outlet.Floor Mounted. Tank Type Water Closet   Typical Residential Design American Standard Corp. “Cadet” 21 .

Wall Outlet Tank Type Water Closet  American Standard “Yorkville” 22 .Floor Mounted.

Wall Mounted Urinal  American Standard “Lynbrook” 23 .

Wall Mounted Lavatory. “Splashback” Design  American Standard “Lucerne” 24 .

Wall Mounted Wheelchair Lavatory “Slab” Design  American Standard “Wheelchair Users Lavatory” 25 .

Arms carry weight of cantilevered lavatory Josam Corp.Lavatory Fixture Carrier    Carrier is framed within wall. 26 .

Vitreous China Counter Sink  American Standard “Standard Collection Countertop Sink” 27 .

Counter Sink w/ ADA Faucet 28 .

pail hook and hose Vacuum breaker prevents backflow 29 .Mop Receptor in Janitor’s Closet    2’x2’ unit shown Wall mounted faucet.

Table 22. 9th ed.) Pipes are selected from tables based upon the number of DFU’s that they carry. 998 10th ed.. pp. p.) 30 ..Pipe Size    Fixture Unit Method Each Plumbing fixture is assigned a “Drainage Fixture Unit” DFU.2.3-22. 9991001 10th ed. or vent. 693-695. p. Table 22. pp. 691. 9th ed. 1018-1020 (pp. 1017 (p.5.

Pipe Size (Cont’d)   Example: A horizontal fixture branch conveys drainage from the following: • • • • 4 4 8 2 flushometer (flush valve) water closets urinals Lavatories Service sinks  How many fixture units does the pipe carry? 31 .

Example (cont’d)        Refer to Table 22.c.2 4 w. pipe is required. 32 .3 – a 4” dia.’s x 4 dfu’s = 16 4 urinals x 4 dfu’s = 16 8 lavatories x 1 dfu = 8 2 Sinks x 2 dfu’s = 4 Total: 44 dfu Refer to Table 22.

Until recently. the accepted approach to storm water disposal has been to collect storm water using gutters. are carried by surface drainage into piped storm drains and eventually pollute these bodies of water. including salts. ponds. catch basins. and convey it to a body of water (lakes. Various pollutants. chemicals. oil. organic compounds. 33 . rivers. streams) through an underground piping system. and harmful metals.STORM DRAINAGE    Urbanization alters the natural storm water pathways that have developed over the centuries. roof drains.

Sources of Pollutants        Motor Vehicles Manufacturing Plant Emissions Lawn fertilizing Animal waste Garbage Construction debris Etc. 34 .

The storm water must be treated to filter out the majority of harmful contaminants. including storm water management. The US Green Building Council’s LEED Rating System provides credits for buildings which promote sustainable sites.Storm Drainage (Cont’d)  NYS DEC now requires a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for any site disturbance greater than one acre. 35   .

footing drains must be included with sump pumps to prevent water from penetrating foundation and leaking into basement. either as on-site infiltration. and open celled pavers to allow surface drainage to penetrate to earth on the site. incremental paving units. releasing the collected rainwater slowly. Onsite Infiltration – storm water is collected and discharged to the ground onsite. concrete. Porous pavement uses high porosity asphalt. thus not overtaxing the community storm water system. or to storm sewers at a slower rate.Storm Drainage (Cont’d)  Use of on-site disposal methods reduces the burden on the community storm water disposal system. In buildings with basements or crawlspaces. and include: • • • • • Roof retention – the roof acts as a temporary storage volume. Useful Where soils are dry and absorptive. 36 .

which are either connected to the storm sewer. Gutters drain to downspouts. drywells.Collection Systems      The roof is intentionally designed to drain to: Roof drains (flat roof areas) Gutters (sloped roofs) Roof drains connect to roof leaders or conductors. or simply drain to splash blocks. 37 . which are vertical pipes that ultimately connect to underground building storm drain piping. or other onsite disposal means.

or drain through subsoil piping to an appropriate location. Some buildings with sloped roofs intentionally omit gutters. seeds. 38 .Collection Systems (Cont’d)     Gutters and downspouts in northern climates often develop ice. so as to keep them operating during freeze/thaw periods. which can serve to initiate on-site infiltration in dry soils. Conventional roof drains are common. Sometimes electric heating cable is interlaced along a perimeter band of sloped roofs and gutters. so as to prevent condensation from forming on the pipes and dripping on to interior finish materials. Overhangs drain above gravel trenches. Controlled flow roof drains are constructed so as to moderate the flow of storm water through them. etc. which presents problems during thaw periods. which include a domed shaped strainer to restrict entry of leaves. Indoor roof leaders or conductors should be insulated.

such as vestibule overhangs. For flat roofs.Size of roof drains. roof insulation can be built up and formed to provide required pitch. although many designers use 4”. gutters and downspouts:     The magnitude of the “100 year” rainfall in the locality must first be assessed. etc. NY – 2-1/2” per hour. 39 . (Buffalo. Roof drain areas should be subdivided into several small areas.) Select practical locations for locations of roof drains or gutters. as well as separate standalone roofs.

 The horizontal projected area per roof drain is 6000/4 = 1500 s.f. th ed. 9th  Refer to Table 20. 568.) MEEB:  Maximum 1 hour rainfall for Miami is 4.8.. Florida   Solution: Refer to rainfall map.5-5”/hr. 40 .f. (too small)  A 4” roof drain will drain 2768 s. flat roof.Example:  Select roof drains for a 6000 s.)  At 5” rainfall per hour:  A 3” roof drain will drain 1288 s. 899 (p. 562 9th ed. in Miami.. where it is convenient to divide the roof into four square drainage areas. 894 (p. p. Use 5”. 884 10th ed. p.f. 889 10 ed.f.p. p.

) 41 . roof drains. a 7” dia. gutter would be required at 1/8” per foot slope. Gutters are selected in a similar way. and four individual gutter segments were used to collect water from the roof. which will afford (27681288)/2768 x 100% = 53% additional capacity.7 (Table 9. a 6” diameter gutter at ¼” per foot slope – see Table 20. 9th ed. For example.Example (Cont’d)    Use the 4” dia.7. if this building used a sloped roof with the same horizontal projected area. but slope must also be considered.

Domestic Water Systems     Potable water – defined as water that is suitable for drinking. (NYS 602. Requirement for potable water: • Every structure equipped with plumbing fixtures and used for human occupancy or habitation must provide potable water.1) Water Sources Community water supply • Water obtained from municipalities is generally treated and safe to drink 42 .

43 . must comply with applicable NYS Health Department requirements.Domestic Water Systems (cont’d)  Well • Water obtained from wells must be approved by the authority having jurisdiction. In NYS.

Types of contamination    Bacterial Chemical Radiological 44 . well water can be made potable by on-site treatment systems.Domestic Water Systems (Cont’d) • • • Generally. The water is first tested to determine the type of treatment that is required.

B447 Cement lined ductile iron pipe AWWA C151. B251. D2672 45 .Materials for Piping  NYS code permits various piping materials to be used for water service piping and water distribution piping. Generally. B88. the most popular materials are: Water Service Pipe     Type K copper tubing ASTM B75. AWWA C115 PVC plastic pipe ASTM D1785. D2241.

F442. F441.Materials for Piping (Cont’d)  Water Distribution Pipe • • • Type L. B88. B447 Galvanized steel pipe ASTM A53 CPVC plastic pipe ASTM D2847.4) 46  Disinfection of piping • . CSA B137. B251.3.6 All new water distribution piping must be purged of harmful matter and disinfected in accordance with NYS Health regulations. (NYS 602. M copper tubing ASTM B75.

An underground valve accessible from the surface to enable shut-off of the water service from outside of a building. consisting of a connection or tap.Components of the Water Distribution System  Water Services • Corporation valve • A connection to the street main that is approved by the municipal water authority. • Curb valve  • Water meter  47 . Records water consumption for revenue billing and other purposes. and a valve.

• Types:  Double check valve  Reduced Pressure Zone • Must adhere to Health department requirements   Heated. lighted enclosure Cannot be located in basement or underground 48 .Components of the Water Distribution System (Cont’d)  Backflow preventer • Prevents water from within a building from flowing back into the public water main. which would otherwise contaminate the public water supply.

49 .Components of the Water Distribution System (Cont’d)  Main Shut off valve • A means to shut off all water supply from within a building.

Components of the Water Distribution System (Cont’d)   Pressure reducing valve • Required where pressure exceeds 80 psi • High water pressures can damage plumbing fixtures. cause leaks Water distribution piping • Types:  Upfeed • City Pressure • Pumped  Downfeed 50 .

Components of the Water Distribution System (Cont’d)   Risers Isolation Valves • Isolation valves required at each riser • “Stop valves” required at each plumbing fixture 51 .

Isometric Detail of Domestic Water Piping for Branch Bank 52 .

as well as possible damage. . causing pipe noise and vibration.Components of the Water Distribution System (Cont’d)    Piping must be installed to drain to a convenient drain valve. winterization for unoccupied periods. and are required near all quick closing valves. for repairs. Water hammer • Quick closing valves cause water pressure shock waves. • Water hammer arrestors absorb excess pressure.9) Protection from freezing • Avoid locating domestic water piping in exterior 53 walls. (NYS 604.

• To prevent condensation on cold water pipes.Components of the Water Distribution System (Cont’d)     Provisions for drainage Pipe Insulation • Required for energy conservation for all hot water piping.  Most Common type – used in residences  Consists of insulated storage tank. Water Heating equipment Types:  Direct fired – heating appliance is located where water is heated. gas burner 54 .

55 . e. or where there is a limited amount of available energy. schools.g.  Used where large quantities of hot water are required at intervals. where required quantities fluctuate. pump circulates hot water to heat exchanger located in a separate storage tank.Components of the Water Distribution System (Cont’d)  Water Heaters (Cont’d) • Indirect fired – heating appliance located separate from where water is heated  Storage type  Water heated in separate boiler.

Components of the Water Distribution System (Cont’d)    Instantaneous type  Water is heated almost instantaneously as it flow through tubes surrounding a coil. Semi-instantaneous type Small storage tank and instantaneous water heater with control system – used where there are space restrictions for large water heating system. 56 . Used for applications with a continuous hot water flow demand.

Water Heater Installation Detail 57 .

tank could rupture and cause harm/damage. sinks 58 .Components of the Water Distribution System (Cont’d)   Relief valves • As water temperature increases in confined volume.)  Lavatories. A pressure and temperature relief valve is required on all above with storage tanks. Provisions to prevent scalding • Hot water systems must be designed to limit hot water temperature at plumbing fixtures within safe temperature (110 deg F. pressure increases. beyond limit.

59 .Components of the Water Distribution System (Cont’d)  Provisions to prevent scalding (cont’d)  Shower valves • Pressure balancing valves • Automatically compensate for fluctuations in hot and cold water pressures.

to eliminate delay when hot water faucet is first opened. 60 . hose bibs – for connecting hoses.Components of the Water Distribution System (Cont’d)   Hot water re-circulating system • Pump generally used to continuously circulate hot water from heater to hot water pipes supplying most remote fixtures. • Vacuum breakers required to prevent backflow. Wall hydrants. • Often controlled by time clock and thermostat.

Hot water is instantly available at lavatories and sinks – no waiting or wasted water.Hot Water Recirculating System   Provides continuous circuit for hot water to flow during occupied periods of the building. 61 .

• Fixture units convert to gallons per minute flow based upon Hunter’s curve • Pipes sized so as to provide required pressure at each fixture when water is flowing through them.11 beginning on p. 62 . 986 11 ed.Pipe Sizes  Sizes established based upon “fixture unit method” • Each fixture assigned a water supply fixture unit value for hot. cold. th • Refer to Section 21. and total consumption.

Some Sustainable Design Strategies  Minimize water usage  Low Flow Fixtures       Collect & store rainwater    Exceed flow rates established by Energy Policy Act 1992 (>30% = LEED Credit) Waterless urinals Two stage flush toilets Flow restrictors on showers Metering faucets For flush toilets/urinals For irrigation systems Other uses 63 .

Sustainable Design Strategies (cont’d)  Minimize energy use    Occupancy controlled hot water recirculating systems High efficiency domestic water heaters Exceed best practice values for domestic hot water pipe insulation 64 .

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