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What Will You Gain From This Presentation?

Why steel structures? What is connections? Components of connections Design philosophy Classification criteria of connections Understanding different types of connections Special connections

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General Connections In Steel Structures

Why Steel?
Steel allows for reduced frame construction time and the ability to construct in all seasons Steel makes large spans and bay sizes possible, providing more flexibility Steel is easier to modify and change to an extent facility over its life Steel is lightweight and can reduce foundation costs Steel is durable, long-lasting and recyclable There is always a solution in steel -AISC
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Connections
Connects different inter/intra-elements Load transmission medium top to foundation Decide behavior of structure Rigid / Flexible Brittle failure Cost of connections > steel work (60 40) All chores Analysis & Design - Appropriate - Drawings Sufficient - Execution - Practical

A structure is only strong as its weakest link N Subramanian


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Components of Connections

Connectors

Connecting Part

Cutting, Drilling, Bolting, Welding of Plates, Cleats, Angle, Rolled sections

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General Connections In Steel Structures

Design Philosophy
Connections

Art

Science

Determination of most efficient load paths because all connections are indeterminate

Involves equilibrium, limit states and lower bound theorem

Strength : Forces are calculated applying equilibrium > Analysis Stiffness : The stiffness of the connection affects the level of loading for which it should be designed. Rigid No influence of their deformations (High rotational stiffness) Pinned connections - Flexible enough to accommodate rotations Deformation Capacity : Qualitative & difficult to check Ductile connections that have a great deformation capacity contribute to the overall safety of the structure in the event that the connection becomes overloaded. plastic design is employed with plastic hinges forming in the connections
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Classification of connections
Connections

Type of connecting medium

Type of force connection is expected transfer

Structural element that made up the connection

Type of members the connection are joining

Based on location

1 Riveted 2 Bolted 3 Welded

1 Axial 2 Shear 3 Moment

1 Single plate-angle 2 Double web angle 3 Seated angle 4 Stiffened seat

1 Beam to beam 2 Column to column 3 Beam to column 4 Base

1 Shop 2 Field

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General Connections In Steel Structures

Based on connecting medium


Manufactured from mild steel, aluminium, copper, brass and special alloys. Length > Grip Heating up to 980OC Cold rolled used in aircraft industry Intermediate between friction and bearing type Similar to pile Obsolete in structure

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Based on connecting medium

Bolts are classified as Black bolts, Turned/close tolerance and HFSG Grade = 3.6, 4.6, 4.8, 5.6, 5.8, 6.8, 8.8, 9.8, 10.9, 12.9. =12 to 68mm Black bolts = Most commonly used, ductile, static condition, rough surface Turned bolts = Machined surface, more expensive, dynamic conditions HSFG Bolts = Proof load is used (no yield point), slip critical connections, good where vibration & impact is induced, pretensioned
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Based on connecting medium


Shearing of Bolts & plates

Vnsb (( fu / 3 )( nnAnb nsAsb ) )Ymb


Bearing of Bolts & Plates

Vnpb (2.5kbdtfu ) / Ymb


Bearing of plate, t<0.5bolt dia Tension failure of Bolts & Plates

Tnb (0.90 fubAn ) / Ymb


failure of bolted connections
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Based on connecting medium


(a) Bearing Connection T Bearing stresses

T (b) Friction Connection T Clamping Force, PO Frictional Force T

Tension in bolt

Clamping Force, PO Load transfer mechanism bolted connections


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Based on connecting medium

(b) Fillet welds (a) Groove welds Ends shall be semi circular A A

A Section A-A
(c) Slot weld

Section A-A

(d) Plug weld

Types of welds
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Based on connecting medium


f1

w w

Critical plane

fu

fw2 3 w2

fd size * 0.707 * fy /( 3 * Ym)

In the design procedure the internal force on the fillet weld is resolved into components parallel and transverse to the critical plane of the weld throat A uniform stress distribution is assumed on the critical throat section of the weld, leading to the normal stresses and shear stresses
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Type of force connection is expected transfer

Axial force is transferred by shear through weld or bolts using cover plates Cover plates = 5/8 t

Axial Connections
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Type of force connection is expected transfer

Axial Connections
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Type of force connection is expected transfer


Curve 1: At a very low moment it safely yields (M1 ) and allows the connection to rotate ( ) , This is typical of top angle, web framing angles, connections Curve 2 : Under working load it elastically yields sufficiently to provide the necessary rotation of the connection, and yet has sufficient resistance to develop the proper end moment. Although thick top angles have been suggested for service as semi-rigid connections, they are impractical to design and fabricate with the desired built-in restraint Curve 3 : Using a top connecting plate detailed to develop the full end moment 16

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Type of force connection is expected transfer

(a)

(b)

(c) Shear or Pin Connections


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(d)

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Type of force connection is expected transfer


Clip

b R / tw( fyw / Ymo)


R Bearing 45O Seat angle Stiffener

b1 b (Tf rb) Abr R /( fy / Ymo)

Stiffened & unstiffened seat angle connections


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Type of force connection is expected transfer


Web Angle Depth of cleat = (0.6 to 0.7 Db) Minimum thickness of web angle is 8mm, Db= 450 Thicker the angle = Stiffer the angle

Single or double web angle connections


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Type of force connection is expected transfer

(a)

(b)

(c) Moment Connections


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(d)

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Type of force connection is expected transfer


End plate

End plate connections


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Type of force connection is expected transfer

End plate connections


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Type of force connection is expected transfer

End plate connections


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Type of force connection is expected transfer

Prying forces arises when a relatively thin plate deflects outward, thus pressing the unsupported edges against the supporting piece
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Type of force connection is expected transfer


Bolts in tension (Prying effect)

Bolts in single shear

Shear is transferred by web angle F = M/Db Find thickness of web of stub Flange design Tension & Prying effect

Split Beam/T- Stub connections


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Type of force connection is expected transfer

R Mdi / di2

T Myn / yi 2

Bracket connection
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Type of members the connection are joining


Designed for M and V Flange splice plate work as flange Web splice plate work as web Flanges transfer M Web transfer V (Except slender web) Flush end plate as end plate moment connections

Beam splice
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Type of members the connection are joining

Tension field Post buckling behaviour


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Type of members the connection are joining


Axial force are transferred in accordance with the area of flanges and web

Column splice
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Type of members the connection are joining

Axial force are transferred in accordance with the area of flanges and web

Column bases
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References
Owens & Cheal Structural Steel Work Connections Euro code -3 AISC Connection Manual Akbar Tamboli Handbook of Connection Design Subramanian Design of Steel Structures INSDAG Teaching Resources ESDEP Notes -European Steel Design Education Programme

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