After today…
• You should be able to tell the difference between subcultures & countercultures • You should be able to identify the purpose of subcultures within dominant society • You should be able to identify the qualities of sub/countercultures

What is a subculture?
• Any group that exists within dominant, mainstream culture…a world within a world
– Shared ideology…values, norms, beliefs – Shared aesthetic…dress, pastimes, music, zines/blogs, etc – Shared vernacular…specialized language

Types of Subcultures
• Vocational subcultures • Recreational subcultures • Ethnic subcultures

Job Jargon: Truck Driving
• • • • • • • "Reefer" ... refrigerated trailer "Big Road" .... Highway "Flip Flop" ... return trip "Chicken Coup" ... truck scales "Bear" ... Police "Back Door" ... Behind "Lot Lizard" ... truck stop prostitute

Youth Subcultures • In your groups make a list of 5 youth subcultures we have here at the high school: – Identify what shared values/ideology the group embraces – Identify what shared aesthetic the group embraces (music. dress. pastimes. etc. body modifications. hairstyles.) – Identify what shared vernacular the group uses (slang terms or specialized language) .


Purpose of both sub and countercultures • Gives people a place where they are empowered • Connects likeminded people • Makes invisible people visible • Allows people to escape the identity they are born into • Gives people a place to construct identity .

Furries .


who identify in some way as other than human • Believe themselves to be mythological or legendary creatures. having a nonhuman soul – Angels. primarily Internetbased. lycanthropes. extraterrestrials. explaining their beliefs through reincarnation. demons. dragons. kitsune. fairies. elves.Otherkin • Subculture of people. and vampires .


(20 yrs old) – Weapons of choice: wooden swords. metal pipes and Molotov cocktails. a Japanese subculture associated with motorcycle clubs and gangs. .Bōsōzoku • “Violent running gang”. and running red lights – composed of people under the legal adult age. – First seen in the 1950s as the Japanese automobile industry expanded rapidly. such as weaving in traffic. • Engage in dangerous or reckless driving. not wearing motorcycle helmets.


prostitution and violence . and custom embroidery • Know for glue sniffing. shoplifting. stimulant use. pleated skirts that went down to their feet. while "ban" means boss in Japan.Sukeban • Sukeban --"suke" means female. theft. girl gangs • Wear sailor uniforms.


anime.Girls dress like their favorite manga. or cosplay . cyber. or video-game character. decora . Harajuku district of Japan Wamona.

Wells and Jules Verne – Clothing: gowns. corsets. petticoats and bustles.G. • Example: Panic at the Disco’s “The Ballad of Mona Lisa” • Music – industrial dance/synthpunk . or military-inspired garments. coats and spats. suits with vests.Steampunk • Based on science fiction literature blended with Victorian Era culture… – Think H.


Hipsters .


etc. . zombie. post apocalyptic.LARPers • Participants physically act out their characters' actions as decided by the gamemaster – May last hours or days – May be in public or private – Most characters dress up and have alternative personas – Horror. fantasy. assassin.


Trekkies .

but not always (e.g. Anarchists. KKK. women’s lib groups in the 70s or the Civil Rights movement of the 60s) – Hippies.What is a counterculture? • A group who’s values and norms deviate from or are at odds with those of dominant culture: – Usually viewed as negative/dangerous. Satanists. Hells Angels/Pagans. Cults . early punk.

Why do people join countercultures? • Members of countercultural groups are… Usually outsiders Alienated Freaks. nerds and losers Marginalized people with little power over their status in the world – Don’t fit the mold of what American cultures says is “normal” – – – – . geeks.

rejected materialism. Patti Smith . Talking Heads. The Ramones. anti-establishment • Music: Sex Pistols. Television.Punk Subculture • Emerges in London and NYC in the 1970s – Max’s Kansas City & CBGBs • Backlash against the hippy counterculture • Values: nihilistic. Blondie.



Hippies .



What is a “cult”? • A group whose beliefs seem bizarre or abnormal • Can be religious or secular: • Modern cults include large group-awareness training. business (pyramid schemes). psychotherapy. and "New Age" groups: – Westboro Baptist Church? – Scientology? . political (militia).

deaths of 9 Mennonite children who died in a fire…the list goes on! .• Independent Baptist church in Topeka. Catholic & Episcopalian churches. celebrity funerals. Kansas • Headed by Fred Phelps. 71 members • Stage anti-gay protests at military funerals.

S. extremist religions.Cults in American Society • Some estimates suggest there are over 5000 cults in the U.000 converts per year to various cults . – Some estimates suggest upwards of 185. and new age sects) • The turn of the century rekindled interest and membership in cults. (including militia groups.

Problem with Defining “Cults” • One person’s cult is another’s religion • What is the difference between a “cult” and a “social movement”? • What is the difference between an “extremist group” and a “club”? .

8. 6. beliefs or practices at odds with dominant culture. 2. .'' usually based on new insights or revelation. hidden or inner truth. 7. Subjective: undue emphasis on experience and emotions often resulting in anti-intellectualism. 4. Authoritarian: central leadership in one person or small group of individuals.Cults: 8 Commonalities 1. Persecution-Conscious: the belief that their group is singled out for persecution. Legalistic: a tightly structured framework which governs spirituality and the smallest details of daily life. Sanction-Oriented: stern sanctions issued for anything less than total obedience. Esoteric: an emphasis on secret. 3. Oppositional: values. 5. Exclusivistic: only the group has ''the truth.

Characteristics of People Who Join Cults • • • • • • • • A desire to belong Unassertiveness Gullibility (impaired capacity to question critically) Low tolerance for ambiguity Cultural disillusionment or alienation Idealism A lack of self-confidence A desire for spiritual meaning .

Applewhite was the same as Jesus – Earth was being “Recycled” – Comet Hale-Bopp was signal to leave .Heaven’s Gate Cult • Founded by Marshall Applewhite AKA “Do”. and Bonnie Lu Truesdale AKA”Ti” • Mid 1970’s – West Coast • Beliefs – Aliens a “ Level Above” humans – Earth was a “ Garden for Souls” – Jesus was part of this.

Star Trek reference All wearing the following: •Identical blue shirts and sweatpants •Nike Widerunners •Armbands reading “Heaven’s Gate Away Team” •Each had a $5 bill and 3 quarters in their pocket .

Marshall Applewhite & Bonnie Lu Nettles Trusdale .


police suspicion • Jones leases 4.000) • Preached imminent end of the world in a nuclear war and that the survivors would create a “new socialist Eden” on earth • Would travel around the country performing fake healings and fund raising • San Francisco .Jim Jones: The People’s Temple • Founded in 1955 by Jim Jones • By 1959 = over 900 members (mid-70s 3.000 acres of land in Guyana .

1978: Ryan attempts to help potential defectors – Temple guards open fire. 3 journalists and one defector – Jones orders mass execution – Cyanide-laced. 1978: Congressman Leo Ryan goes to Guyana to investigate • November 18. grape flavored Kool-Aid .Jonestown Massacre • November 17. kill Ryan.

Aftermath • 918 dead • 270 children • Greatest single loss of American civilian life before 9/11 • Only Congressman to ever be assassinated .



travel around in a van for 18 months • 1968. drug use.Charles Manson • 1967. Manson and the Family take up residence with Dennis Wilson (Beach Boy) – Becomes obsessed with recording music – Terry Melcher (music producer) refuses to sign Manson . moves to Haight-Ashbury in San Francisco – Begins living with Mary Brunner and eventually 18 other women (The Family) – Asserts complete control: sexual orgies.

Dennis Wilson .

only problem? • Melcher moved! . but his followers would be safe – When the slaughter did not happen he told his followers they would have to show the blacks how to do it… – First target: Terry Melcher.The Manson Family • Believed that the song Helter Skelter predicted impending race wars in the year 1969 – Blacks would rise up and kill all whites..

Patricia Krenwinkel and Linda Kasabian • August 9. Voytek Frykowski and Jay Sebring – Total of 102 stab wounds .The Manson Family Murders • Family Members: “Tex” Watson. 1969 . Susan Atkins.Sharon Tate. Abigail Folger.

Jay Sebring.Tex Watson. Susan Atkins Steven Parent. Wojciech Frykowski. Linda Kasabian. Patricia Krenwinkel. Sharon Tate . Abigail Folger.

Atkins. 1969: Leno and Rosemary LaBianca stabbed to death in their home . “Tex” Watson • August 9. Krenwinkel. Clem Tufts.The Manson Family Murders • Family Members: Manson. Kasabian. Leslie Van Houton.

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