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Ethiopian Civil Service University Institute of Urban development studies

Urban environment and Climate Change Management Masters Program


Chapter One: Introduction to Solid Waste Management (Session 3&4)

Learning Outcome: Participants will able to


the essence of solid waste Identify types of solid waste Distinguish hazardous waste from non-hazardous Discuss components of solid waste management Systems Distinguish effective solid waste management system Apply SWM framework in SWM program Explain the role of solid waste management in cities

1.1. Overview of Solid waste Management System

What is waste? What is Solid Waste? What is Urban Solid waste? What are hazardous and non-hazardous solid wastes? Describe the sources of Solid Wastes in your locality How solid waste is managed at your HH and city/town level? Explain effective Solid Waste Management?

Events of the 20th and early into the 21st century indicate that waste in whatever form or classification- solid, liquid or toxic have become a major consequence of modernization and economic development (Tsiboe and Marbell, 2004). Waste generation, both domestic and industrial, continues to increase world-wide in tandem with growth in consumption. In developed countries, per capita waste generation increased nearly three-fold over the last two decades, reaching a level five to six times higher than that in developing countries.

With increases in populations and living standards, waste generation in developing countries is also increasing rapidly, and may double in volume in the current decade. If current trends continue, the world may see a five-fold increase in waste generation by the year 2025. A high proportion of the waste could be recycled by the urban poor generating income for themselves and protecting the environment. There is a need to develop an integrated approach where the public, private and community sectors work together to develop local solutions promoting sustainable solid waste management

1.1.1 Definitions

There are many complex legal definitions of solid waste. UN Habitat 2010 Solid waste is defined as any item or material that is discarded by its owner and that is not discharged in gaseous form to the atmosphere, to a pit latrine or via a pipe or channel. Solid waste may include gases and liquids in

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of US defines the term solid waste as:
Garbage (e.g., milk cartons and coffee grounds) Refuse (e.g., metal scrap, wall board, and empty containers) Sludges from waste treatment plants, water supply treatment plants, or pollution control facilities (e.g., scrubber slags) Industrial wastes (e.g., manufacturing process wastewaters and non waste water sludges and solids) Other discarded materials, including solid, semisolid, liquid, or contained gaseous materials resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, agricultural, and community activities (e.g., boiler slags).

According to the act the definition of solid waste is not limited to wastes that are physically solid. Many solid wastes are liquid, while others are semisolid or gaseous. Solid waste Management Proclamation no 513/2007 of Ethiopia

Waste means anything that is neither liquid nor gas and is discarded as unwanted

Solid waste is classified as hazardous and non-hazardous Hazardous Waste is a "solid waste" which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics may:

a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored or disposed of, or otherwise mismanaged; or Cause or contribute to an increase in mortality, or an increase in irreversible or incapacitating illness.

Waste exhibiting one or more of the following four characteristics is considered hazardous:
Toxicity-Waste toxicity is measured by using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Eg lead 5mg/lit is the regulatory threshold Corrosivity-Corrosive waste has a pH that is either less than or equal to 2 (highly acidic) or greater than or equal to 12.5 (highly basic), or which can corrode steel at a certain rate.

Ignitability-Ignitable waste generally includes liquids with flash points below 140F (60C), flammable solids and compressed gases, and oxidizers

ReactivityReactive waste includes substances that are capable of easily generating explosive or toxic gases, especially when mixed with water.

1.1.2. Sources and Types of Solid Waste

Tchobanoglous et al (1993), classified types of solid waste in relation to the sources and generation facilities, activities, or locations associated with each type as follows
-Residential - Commercial -Industrial - Open areas -Treatment plant sites - Agricultural

He further explained the types of solid waste which include food waste, rubbish, ashes and residues and special waste.

Source Residential

Typical location Single-family and multifamily dwellings, low-medium, and high-rise apartments.

Types of Solid Waste Food wastes, rubbish, ashes, special wastes Food wastes, rubbish, ashes, demolition and construction wastes, special wastes, occasionally

Commercial/ Municipal

Stores, restaurants, markets, office buildings, hotels, motels, print shops, auto repair shops, medical facilities and institutions.

hazardous wastes
Industrial Construction, fabrication, light and heavy manufacturing, refineries, chemical plants, lumbering, mining, demolition. Food wastes, rubbish, ashes, demolition and construction wastes, special wastes, occasionally hazardous wastes. Open areas Streets, alleys, parks, vacant plots, playgrounds, Special wastes, rubbish beaches, highway and recreational areas. Treatment Water, wastes water, and industrial treatment Treatment plant wastes, principally

plant sites

Field and row crops, orchards, vineyards, dairies, feedlots and farms.

composed of residual sludge

Spoiled food wastes, agricultural wastes, rubbish, hazardous wastes

1.1.3. Concepts of effective Solid Waste Management

Solid Waste Management refers to the handling of activities which provide for the collection, separation, storage, transport, transfer, processing, recycling, incineration, treatment and disposal of solid waste.


Reuse, Recycle (3R)

Methods of waste reduction


products with less packaging, encouraging customers to bring their own reusable bags for packaging, encouraging the public to choose reusable products such as cloth napkins and reusable plastic and glass containers,


composting and sharing and donating any unwanted items rather than discarding them.

the removal of items from the waste stream to be used as raw materials in the manufacture of new products (recycling) occurs in three phases: first the waste is sorted and recyclables collected, the recyclables are used to create raw materials.

Another option is to mix the recyclables with the general waste stream for collection and then sorting and recovery of the recyclable materials can be performed by the municipality at a suitable site. (what are the advantages & dis advantages?)

Colour coded recycling bins for waste separation at the source of production

Waste Collection

at designated location-low capital cost, but slow to load; wastes are scattered around the point of collection and residents complain Shared Container-low operating cost, but if not maintained the container corrode, residents complain Block collection- Economical Less waste on streets. No permanent container or storage to cause complaints. Waste left outside and scattered if all family members are off home.


collection- Convenient; no permanent public storage. If collection service is delayed, waste may not be collected or some time, causing considerable nuisance


door collection-Convenient for resident; Little waste on street. Residents must be available to hand waste over. Not suitable for apartment buildings because of the amount of walking required.


collection-Very convenient for residents. No

waste in street. The most expensive system, because of the walking involved. Cultural beliefs, security considerations or architectural styles may prevent laborers from entering properties.

Treatment & Disposal


treatment-the use of heat to treat waste


combustion of waste in the presence of oxygen. Results Ash, water Vapour and CO2. Used for energy recovery, reduce CH4 production, transportation cost

Pyrolysis and Gasification-both decompose organic waste by exposing it to high temperatures and low amounts of oxygen. . A mixture of combustible and non-combustible gases as well as pyroligenous liquid produced. burning-has negative effects . It releases dioxins, particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic compounds, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, hexachlorobenzene and ash into the atmosphere. These chemicals pose serious risks to human health



and Landfills


landfills-placed in area with clay soil, low water table and absence of surface water body The bottom side of the landfill is Covered with clay or plastic to prevent leachate.


or monitoring-Wells are dug in the vicinity of the landfill to monitor groundwater quality. A landfill is divided into a series of individual cells and only a few cells of the site are filled with trash at any one time. This minimizes exposure to wind and rain. When
the landfill has reached its capacity it is capped with an impermeable seal which is typically composed of clay soil.


dumps-disposal sites which comply with most of the requirements for a sanitary landfill there may be partial leachate management, partial or no gas management, regular cover, compaction in some cases, basic record keeping and they are fenced or enclosed.


Landfills-use enhanced microbiological processes to accelerate the decomposition of waste. The main controlling factor is the constant addition of liquid (leachate etc) to maintain optimum moisture for microbial digestion. It requires voluminous organic waste, reduce cost of leachate mgt, enhance CH4 production and energy recovery, better for space mgt (reduce volume of waste rapidly& create space)


waste treatment


is the controlled aerobic decomposition of organic matter by the action of micro organisms and small invertebrates. The techniques includes : in vessel composting, windrow composting, vermin composting and static pile composting. The rate of compost formation is controlled by the composition and constituents of the materials i.e. their Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) ratio, the temperature, the moisture content and the amount of air. A high temperature is desirable for the elimination of pathogenic organisms , a range of 50-600C with the ideal being 600C.

Anaerobic Digestion- like composting uses biological processes to decompose organic waste, but anaerobic digestion uses bacteria and an oxygen free environment to decompose the waste. It results in the formation of Carbon Dioxide and methane, and as used as a method of producing biogas which can be used to generate electricity. the process require nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, and the pH be maintained around 7


What is Strategic planning? Explain the steps in strategic planning. Why SP in Urban Waste management?

Does your city/town has Urban Waste SP?

Planning Hierarchy

Strategic planning is a tool for organizing the present on the basis of the projections of the desired future. A strategic plan helps an organization to create and maintain a long-term view of what it wants to become, providing a framework for programs that help the organization better serve stakeholder needs. It also helps identify what changes may be necessary for the organization to compete effectively in the future.

Steps in SWM Strategic Planning



Settling Internal and external conditions /Confirming the will of political actors, city council/ Participatory or Expert Approach? If participatory set the modes of participation Identifying Stakeholders: Preparation of a long list of stakeholders, Preparation of a short list of stakeholders, Invitation of stakeholders to the strategy preparation Establishing the Steering Committee and

structuring the planning process, Developing a Terms of Reference, Acquiring Funding and Resources, Preparing a Work plan


A Baseline study should be carried out to identify waste quantities and composition, and understand existing waste management practices. Outline Contents of a Baseline Study

and Information on


quantities and composition Existing MSWM Operations Institutional/financial framework Prediction of future waste quantities Analysis of shortfalls and constraints


Defining the Strategic Vision:-defining, for example, the overall strategic vision and responsibilities of Government departments, service providers and waste generators. Status of the Strategic MSWM Plan:Strategic MSWM Plan will need to have official status and be fully integrated with other local Development Plans and Strategies either in place or being developed.

Defining the Scope of the Plan:-This will involve making decisions on the planning area, period and types of waste to be covered by the plan. Defining Key Issues:-. The full extent and true nature of key issues can, however be identified in the baseline study, be best understood through coordinated discussion and debate between stakeholders. Setting Objectives and Targets:-the main goals of the Strategic Plan, and cover all of the


The purpose of Step 4 is to identify and evaluate the practical options available for addressing each of the component parts of the overall MSWM system. The five sub steps should be effectively combined to form the Strategy and Action Plan.

Framework Waste Collection and Recycling Waste Treatment and Disposal Financial Sustainability Public Awareness and Participation


even though a Strategy may not indicate the location of future waste disposal sites it may contain statements on improving waste disposal standards, selecting sites etc, Many MSWM plans have not been effective due to a tendency to `jump to detailed technical issues before securing agreement on broad strategic aims. Forming specialize working groups, preparing the draft strategy, finalizing the strategy


Aspects Requiring Detailed Evaluation during Action Planning


Options Waste Collection and Recycling Options Waste Treatment and Disposal Options Cost Recovery and Financial Management Public Awareness and Participation

Finalizing the Strategic MSWM Plan-with consultation and participation of stakeholders Preparing the Immediate Action Plan Preparing Investment Projects


Moving from Planning to Implementation


necessary approval and budgets, institutional strengthening, conducting detailed feasibility studies, developing infrastructure, procuring equipment and services and raising levels of public awareness and community participation.

Revising and Updating the Strategic Plan Monitoring Performance Focus areas of Management Information Systems


Solid Waste Management Matrix

Waste Minimization SOCIAL Waste Recycling ECONOMIC Waste Disposal TECHNOLOGY


SWM is not an isolated phenomenon that can be easily compartmentalized and solved with innovative technology or engineering. It is particularly an urban issue that is closely related, directly or indirectly, to a number of issues such as urban lifestyles, resource consumption patterns, jobs and income levels, and other socio-economic and cultural issues.

SWM Matrix
Dimensions and Levels of decision-making Social Technology Economic Political Administrative Household Neighborhood City Nation

* * *

* * * * *

* * * * * * * *

The matrix helps in understanding the interrelationships and interconnectedness of the various issues involved. There is a gradual shift from 'end-of pipe' solutions that focus on waste disposal, to a source based approach that is aimed at 'life-cycle' analysis collection and processing of waste needs for a more comprehensive partnership between the community and local governments integrate SWM activities within the larger process of urban environmental management.


The two main models for non-governmental solid waste collection are micro-enterprises and community-based. The micro-enterprise (ME) approach is increasingly applied in Latin American cities. The main actors involved are the beneficiaries, the collectors organized in the form of a small private enterprise, and the legally responsible municipal authority. Loans as well as technical and financial assistance are provided by a financial institution and an NGO.

The community-based approach includes systems managed at community level by CBOs or individuals. Most schemes comprise of one of the two models applied quite successfully throughout Indonesia for nearly two decades and in some parts of Africa during the past decade. The responsible municipality, which plays a minor role, is active only as initiator of a scheme entrusted with the issuing of regulations, or as supporter in terms of providing access to

Techniques for Involving the Public

Information Techniques

Feature Stories, News conferences, Newsletters Mailing out Key Technical Reports or Environmental Documents Newspaper Inserts, News Releases Paid advertisements, Press Kits Presentations to Civic and Technical Groups

Listening Techniques

Groups Hotline Interviews Hearings, Meetings, and Workshops Questionnaires

Collaborative Techniques

Groups/Task Forces

Discuss in Group the private sector role of Solid Waste management.

1.2. Key Issues on Solid Waste Management (Session 5&6)

Contemporary Debate on Urban Solid waste Management Practices



durable products Repair/restore used items Buy items you can re-use. Buy items you can recycle locally Avoid excess packaging Pass unwanted items on to friends and family Make really good use of your waste compost bin Reduce toxic waste

Waste processing:- reduces the amount of material requiring disposal and, in some cases, also produces a useful product. Examples of solid waste processing technologies include material recovery facilities, where recyclable materials are removed and/or sorted; composting facilities where organics in solid waste undergo controlled decomposition; and waste-to energy facilities where waste becomes energy for electricity.

Waste recycling:- If recycling materials is an

economically viable undertaking, small enterprises have been and will continue to spring up whenever there is an opportunity; in fact the theft of source-separated recyclable materials has been documented in many pilot schemes in both developed and developing nations (UNEP 1996). Throughout cities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, varying numbers of poor individuals survive by salvaging materials from the waste stream. These people recover materials to sell for reuse or recycling, as well as diverse items for their own consumption.

Waste Disposal Solid waste Disposal Method Compost; Landfill; Burning Hazardous Waste Disposal Methods Injection wells; landfills; bioremediation; incineration

What Health and Environmental impact SWM poses?

Impact of SWM

Solid waste disposal poses a greater problem because it leads to land pollution, water pollution and air pollution. Environmental Impact:-The processes of storage, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of wastes all have the potential to pollute the environment and particularly groundwater due to uncontrolled migration of fluids (leachate) derived from the wastes. Climate change:-Countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa account for nearly 40 percent of annual methane emissions from landfills, which is equal to 37 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MTCO2e) or the amount of air emissions from more than 102 million automobiles.

Health Impact:- a wide range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms, irritation of the skin, nose, and eyes, gastrointestinal problems, psychological disorders, and allergies, have been discovered. A number of researches have been carried out in response to concerns from the public, often triggered by nuisances caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds.
Dumpsites emit obnoxious odours and smoke that cause illness to people living in, around, or closer to them

The effects of chemical pollution Exposure to chemicals emitted from locations where wastes are stored, processed or disposed can lead to a variety of illnesses and defects, including low birth weight and shortened gestation. A California study found children born to mothers living within a quartermile of a superfund (hazardous waste) site had a higher risk of birth defects, such as heart defects and neurological problems; Pregnant women handling electronic waste put their unborn babies at considerable risk because of the heavy metals and other materials incorporated into electronic components;

People living or working downwind of crude waste processing

facilities (plants that are not designed to minimize air pollution and that are not inspected and monitored by environmental experts) may be exposed to dangerous concentrations of heavy metals.

Smoke from burning plastic often contains dioxins which can

lead to malformations of the foetus, decreased reproduction

and growth rates, and impairment of the immune system.

Some of the effects of heavy metals are: cadmium interferes with the growth of unborn


exposure to lead can cause early delivery or dead

births, and has been proven to cause physical and

developmental damage to the unborn children, and

mercury can cause brain damage in foetuses.

1.2.6. Solid waste Management and Millennium Development Goals

Incomes are generated not only from collecting and trading recyclable material, but also from processing it and selling the products. Solid waste management clearly contributes to achieving Millennium Development Goal 1. Threaten goal 2- children involved in waste picking/scavenging are either out of school or likely to face discrimination at school (UNICEF in 1998 estimated that 45,000 children in Brazil worked in waste picking, 30% of them

In the waste business, it is often the case that males are involved in collection and transportation of waste while females are given the unhealthy tasks of picking on disposal sites and sorting collected waste. Women are usually more concerned for the cleanliness and environment of the home, particularly as it relates to the health and safety of their children. (Goal 3)

Diarrhoea is a major killer of young children in developing countries. Solid waste is implicated in the spread of childhood diarrhoea. One transmission route for this class of diseases is the housefly carrying microbes from faeces to food. Other health problems due to poor SWM are challenges to realize targets under goal four of MDG.

Women who work as waste pickers, sorters and recyclers and their new-born babies are at particular risk from infection because of the high concentrations of disease-causing bacteria associated with solid wastes, because of the lack of access to sanitation and washing facilities, and perhaps a lack of awareness of the importance of cleanliness. Their health may also be threatened by chemical pollutants. (Goal 5)

Discuss in group the relationship between SWM and goal 7 & 8 of MDG

1.3. Integrated Solid waste Management

Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is a comprehensive waste prevention, recycling, composting, and disposal process. Three approaches to ISWM

consumption reduction and

reuse Generation-based: applying 3r at source and every level of SWM Management-based: regulations and laws, institutions, financial mechanisms, technology and infrastructure, and role of various stakeholders in the solid waste management

Generation Based ISWM

Management Based ISWM

ISWM takes an overall approach to creating sustainable systems that are economically affordable, socially acceptable and environmentally effective



reduction recycling aerobic composting anaerobic digestion refuse derived fuel (rdf) waste-to-energy combustion (wte)
sanitary landfilling unsanitary landfilling and open dumping
Hierarchy of Sustainable Waste Management (Ranjith Kharvel Annepu 2012)

CHAPTER TWO: Municipal Solid Waste Management

Todays municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are more complex than ever. With each passing year, the number of options available for managing MSW continues to grow. solid waste managers find it increasingly difficult to track and evaluate the costs and benefits of their operations. Tracking costs is particularly important, however, given the rising costs of waste management services.

Types and Examples of MSW Management Costs UNEP 1997,


Costs Operating Costs Back-End Costs Remediation Costs at Inactive Sites Contingent Costs Environmental Costs Social Costs

Up-Front Costs- Public education and outreach, Land acquisition, Permitting,

Building construction/modification

Operating Costs- Normal costs, Operation and maintenance (O&M), Capital costs, Debt service, Unexpected costs Back-End Costs- Site closure, Building/equipment decommissioning, Postclosure care, Retirement/health benefits for current employees

Remediation Costs at Inactive Sites-Investigation, containment, and cleanup of known releases, Closure and post-closure care at inactive sites Contingent Costs- Remediation costs (undiscovered and/or future releases), Liability costs (e.g., property damage, personal injury, natural resources damage) Environmental Costs- Environmental degradation, Use or waste of upstream resources, Downstream impacts

Social Costs-Effects on property values, Community image, Aesthetic impacts, Quality of life

2.1. Tools and Techniques Building your integrated solid waste alternatives program

Step 1: Survey describes the tools to do these activities. Then you design new solid waste management practices and programs to meet your new goals. Step 2: Design describes the tools used to design your program. After you have your design, you can construct your new solid waste management programs and make them operational. Step 3: Construction describes the tools to do these activities. Step 4: Maintenance finally, you will maintain your solid waste management programs, to keep them operating efficiently.

Step 1:Survey

Tools for Estimating Waste Generation


1: contractor estimates-solid waste collection contractor to make the estimates. Method 2: landfill waste ticket estimates-uses the weight receipts from your landfill to estimate the quantity of solid waste. Method 3: average volume per container-uses information collected by the truck drivers while they are collecting solid waste


4: maintenance management program tracking system

method uses information collected by the town if it has a computerized tracking system to track costs.


5: average pounds per visitor (particularly in the towns)

method uses an average generation rate for visitors to estimate the quantity of solid waste. (public areAS)

Tools for Waste Composition Estimates


Field Sort MethodHigh Accuracy


physically separating solid waste into different materials categories.


Combined Composition EstimateMedium Accuracy


method is an analytical estimate that involves no field sorting, and is not dependent on the time of year the estimate is made.


Visual SurveyLow Accuracy


a field sort, visually sorting waste separates materials into different categories.

Calculate a Diversion Rate

Diversion Rate= (tons Recycled + composted+other tons diverted)/ (Tons generated) Or Diversion rate =( tons recycled+tons composted+other tons diverted)/(tons disposed of+all tons diversed)



Establishing Program Goals Evaluating Options: Who, What, And Where Analysis Evaluating Options: Program Design Designing Procurement Programs Prepare an ISWAP Document

Your construction tools may include new work assignments , new equipment and supplies, new contractor services and new concessionaire programs and services. STEP 4: MAINTENANCE TOOLS tracking diversion tool-Every year, recalculate your diversion rate


costs tool- Every year, monitor all

costs improving efficiency and services tool- Every year, repeat the who, what, and where questions:

2.2. Solid waste collection (Session 11&12)

The collection system must be designed and operated in an integrated way. This means that all of the links in the management chain should be considered when any part of the system is being designed, so that all system components are compatible. For example, the method of loading a collection truck must suit the containers that are used to store the waste.

2.2.1. Timing of collection

Frequency of collection:-The frequency of collection (in terms of the number of times in a week or a month that waste is collected) is a fundamental parameter of any waste collection system. It is higher in developing countries than developed countries in temperate zone. Time of day:- Whilst waste collection from urban areas is normally carried out during the hours of daylight, there are many instances of waste being collected at night

In large, congested cities at least some of the collection operations may be carried out at night in order to avoid the traffic congestion that blocks many roads during daylight hours, greatly increasing journey times and reducing productivity. Shift working:-Many waste collection agencies do most of their work during the morning shift (typically 7.00 a.m. to 2.00 p.m.) and in the afternoon and night shifts provide only additional services to business districts and finish work that was not completed during the morning shift.

Days of the week:-Daily collection may mean six days a week (with no working on the weekend rest day) or seven days a week. Providing a collection service seven days a week requires a larger workforce so that employees can have one day off each week and may cause problems for supervision (unless extra supervisors and managers are appointed or they agree to work or be on call seven days a week ).

Even if collection services are provided seven days a week, it may be necessary to provide storage capacity sufficient for the waste of two days if services are suspended on national holidays or religious festivals.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Collection Frequencies

Alternative Potential Advantages Potential Disadvantages Improperly stored Once per week or less Less expensive, Requires less fuel waste can create odor and vector problems Reduces litter, Twice per week Reduces storage requirements More than twice per week Reduces litter, Reduces storage requirements More expensive, Requires more fuel Cold to moderate climate Favoring Conditions

Warm climate

More expensive, Requires more fuel

Dense population

2.2.2. Point of collection

In the street
Containers In this system, householders bring their wastes to predetermined locations where there is usually some form of community storage facility, and refuse collection vehicles visit these sites at frequent intervals, usually once daily or every second day, to remove accumulated waste. Block collection system In this system, a collection vehicle travels a predetermined route at prescribed intervals, usually every two to three days, and stops at selected locations where a bell

At the property boundary Kerbside Collection

Under this arrangement, the collection crew collects waste in bins, bags and other containers which have been left at the roadside. In some places the waste is just left in a pile, requiring considerably more effort from the collection service. The residents and shopkeepers must be informed beforehand about the days on which collection will take place so that they can put out their waste in time for collection. This system requires a very regular and wellorganized collection service so the householders

Inside the property


door collection This system requires residents to do no more than to store their waste in their yards outside their back doors. The collection crew enters each property, takes out the container, empties the waste into the collection vehicle and returns the container to its place outside the back door, not forgetting to replace the lid.

Collection from apartment buildings There are

two further options for multi-storey apartment buildings.

to provide storage outside or at the ground floor, from which the waste can be collected by the collection service. Wastes may be brought to these containers by the residents themselves, by the caretaker of the building or by means of vertical refuse chutes that have openings on each floor so that residents can put their waste into the chutes so that it drops into containers at ground floor level.

Special collections:- Bulky waste and

garden waste can be collected in a number of ways. Since the generation of such waste is often at irregular intervals, the collection agency may provide a service which collects bulky waste on request. Households and businesses are informed of a telephone number which they can dial, or an office they can visit, to request that particular items or materials are collected from their premises.

2.2.3. Methods of loading and transporting waste

Loading:-must consider cost of the service and the health of the labourers Separate or combined collection:-initiatives to encourage household segregation of wastes (so that recyclables are kept separate from other wastes) where little thought has been given to the separate collection of the two or more streams. Direct collection or transfer:-from the point of collection can take the waste directly to the final destination and transfer if economical

Benefits of Transfer Stations

Large transfer trailers replace several collection vehicles for the hauling of waste to the disposal site Collection vehicles are rapidly routed back to work, at-site or turn-around time is reduced compared to the normal time associated with disposal Paved roads/tipping surfaces at transfer station reduce maintenance costs

Benefits of Transfer Stations

Disposal facilities can be located far from populated areas which may diffuse local siting opposition Waste stream inspection opportunity when unloading onto tipping floor or into compactors - spotters remove hazardous wastes Provides another opportunity for recycling, compaction, and/or baling Easy use of multiple disposal sites

2.2.4. Problems faced by Developing countries Inadequate resource mobilisation Over-reliance on imported equipment Inappropriate methods of finance Use of inappropriate technology Inequity in service provision