Cryptology

By Greg Buss Pat Shields Barry Burke

” Modern cryptology combines the studies of computer science and mathematics for the purpose of encoding information to ensure that data is secure.What is Cryptology?  Cryptology is the study of “secret writing. .

and graphein. Literally secret writing. the process of undoing Cryptography Encryption – converts “plaintext” into an encoded text or a “ciphertext” Decryption – the reverse of Encryption Cipher – algorithms used to encrypt and decrypt text Key – an unknown parameter needed to operate a particular cipher’s algorithms . meaning “hidden”. Cryptanalysis – also referred to as code breaking.Key terms Cryptography – from the Greek words kryptos. meaning “to write”.

The word scytale is now used for the message as well as the media. It is still used by military officers today. Gr. A similar rod at the receiving end permitted correct decipherment. skytale).The History  Devices  used throughout history: Scytale (fr. Originally it described a rod or baton carried as a badge of office. a parchment was wrapped spirally around it. Used as an early enciphering device. and the text was written-in lengthwise. Spartan message in (transposition) cipher. .

one smaller and on a disk that he mounted concentric to the larger circle. cipher disk: an enciphering and deciphering tool developed in the 15th century by Leon Battista Alberti. This enabled him to move the two alphabet scales relative to each other. Rather than constructing a table with the regular and cipher alphabets on it. he created two circular scales. .

.   Enigma: a portable cipher machine used to encrypt and decrypt secret messages. Although the Enigma cipher has cryptographic weaknesses. the Wehrmacht Enigma. The German military model. and the occasional captured machine or codebook. it was. in practice. is the version most commonly discussed. The machine has gained notoriety because Allied cryptologists were able to decrypt a large number of messages that had been enciphered on the machine. only their combination with other significant factors which allowed code breakers to read messages: mistakes by operators. procedural flaws.

Basic Letter Substitution Program .

Modern Applications .

plaintext digits are encrypted one at a time. one-key and secret-key Method of encoding where both the sender and receiver of a message hold the same key which is needed to decode the message. and involving the use of block ciphers and stream ciphers. Encoding through Block Ciphers – Uses a fixed-length groups of bits.Symmetric-Key Cryptology Also known as single-key. private-key. Will take a plaintext as an input and using a secret key encode the text. with the transformation of successive digits varying during the encryption . and output ciphertext of the same bit size as the input Encoding through Stream Ciphers . known as a block.

Public-key Cryptology Uses a widely distributed public key used for encoding the message. and a different key. used for decoding which is kept secret More secure than Symmetric-Key Cryptology because the receivers private decoding key is never made known reducing the chance that it may be copied in transit . related mathematically to the former.

the enciphered codes will also become impossible to decode without a key.The Future of Cryptology  Quantum mechanics has now provided the foundation to a new approach to cryptology – quantum cryptology. with the introduction of a working quantum computer. A quantum computer can instantaneously decipher any code written by today’s standards.  . even by another quantum computer. However. can solve many problems that are impossible from the perspective of conventional cryptology. with the use of quantum computers. It has been claimed that quantum cryptology.