Compaction of Soil
Chapter 5

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Lectures (25,26, & 27) Week # 09 (22—26 Nov 2010)

DETERMINATION OF FIELD UNIT WEIGHT OF COMPACTION Standard method for determining the field unit weight compaction include:  Nuclear density meter  Sand cone method  Rubber balloon method.

. Density meter operate either in drilled or from the ground surface. It measure   Weight of wet soil per unit vol.NUCLEAR DENSITY METER    Nuclear density meter are used for determining the compacted dry unit weight of soil. Weight of water per unit vol.  Dry unit weight =moist unit weight of soil minus the weight of water.





SPECIAL COMPACTION TECHNIQUES Vibroflotation  Dynamic compaction  Blasting  .

which is 7 ft long.pipe . Developed in Germany in 1930 First device was used in USA in 1940. Process involve the use of vibroflot also known as vibrating unit . which enables the vibrating unit to vibrate horizontally. Vibrating unit has an eccentric weight inside it and can develop a centrifugal force.VIBROFOLOTATION      Technique for in-situ densification of thick layers of loose granular soil deposits. The vibrating unit is attached to a follow –up.The entire assembly of equipment necessary for compaction is shown in the figure . There are opening at the top and bottom of the vibrating unit for water jets .

1998 10 . It was developed in Germany in the 1930s.5. From Das.4 VIBROFLOTATION Vibroflotation is a technique for in situ densification of thick layers of loose granular soil deposits.

It allows the vibrating unit to sink into the ground Stage 3: Granular material is poured from the top of the hole. This water carries the granular material down the hole Stage 4: The vibrating unit is gradually raised in about 0.5.4 VIBROFLOTATION-PROCEDURES From Das. The water from the lower jet is transferred to he jet at the top of the vibrating unit. 1998 Stage1: The jet at the bottom of the Vibroflot is turned on and lowered into the ground Stage2: The water jet creates a quick condition in the soil.3-m lifts and held 11 .






COMPACTION OF ORGANIC SOIL AND WASTE MATERIALS       The presence of organic material in soil reduces its strength. Such uses are thrust to environmental geo-technology. Soil with high organic content are discarded Slightly organic are used for compaction (for economic reasons) Organic soil are desirable for agriculture. desertification etc With high cost of waste disposal possible use of waste material in various land fill operation has come up. Following are compaction characteristics of some of these materials: 1) Organic soil 2)Paper mill sludge 3).Bottom ash from coal burning and copper slag .

Organic content exceeds 8 to 10% . . Conversely the optimum moisture content increases with the increases in organic content. ORGANIC SOIL     Several laboratory test have been conducted to study the effect of organic content on the compaction characteristics of soil.1. Conclusion : soil with organic content higher then 10% are undesirable for compaction. the max dry unit weight of compaction decreases rapidly .


despite of high water contents . Example  Wisconsin  Massachusetts  both uses paper mill sludge to cap landfills  . and low solid contents can be compacted and used for landfill.2.PAPER MILL SLUDGE Paper mill sludge .

BOTTOM ASH FROM COAL BURNING AND COPPER SLAG  These product have tested in the lab are proven to be safe for use as a landfill .3.


5 4.49 2.54 32 to 41 300 305 305 450 450 457 457 Vibration 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 3 62 25 56 27 62 25 56 1 minute .5lb) BS “Heavy” ASTM (10lb) BS Vibration hammer Mould One Liter Hammer mass (kg) 2.5 2.VARIOUS TYPES OF COMPACTION TEST Type of Test BS “Light” ASTM (5.5 4.54 4.5 Drop (mm) 300 No of layers 3 Blows per layer 27 CBR 4 in 6 in One Liter CBR 4 in 6 in CBR 2.49 4.

PT Good to Fair Good to Poor Fair to Poor Good Compaction Characteristics . CH.COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION Group Symbol GW GP GM GC SW SP SM SC CL ML OL. MH. OH.

Unstable . PT Value as Embankment Material Very Stable Stable Reasonably Stable Reasonably Stable when Dense Poor. OH. CH.EMBANKMENT MATERIALS UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION Group Symbol GW SW CL GP GM GC SC SP SM ML OL. MH. gets better with high density Poor.

SUBGRADE MATERIALS UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION Group Symbol GW GP GM GC SW SP SM SC ML CL OL. MH. PT Value as Subgrade Material Excellent Excellent to Good Good Good to Fair Fair to Poor Poor to Not Suitable . CH. OH.

1979 STRUCTURE OF COMPACTED CLAY Intermediate structure High Compactive Effort Dry Density Dispersed Structure or parallel Flocculated Structure or Honeycomb Structure or Random Low Compactive Effort Water Content .Lambe and Whitman.

PT Compressibility and Expansion Very Little Slight Very Little Slight Slight to Medium Medium High .COMPRESSIBILITY & EXPANSION UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION Group Symbol GW GP GM GC SW SP SM SC ML CL OL. OH. CH. MH.

3.3 PROCEDURES AND RESULTS Procedures (1) Several samples of the same soil. d  Vt 1 w Derive d from the known  and w Plot the dry densities d versus water contents w for each compacted sample.  (3) Mt  . are compacted according to the compaction test specifications. but at different water contents. 34 . The curve is called as a compaction curve. The first four blows The successive blows (2) The total or wet density and the actual water content of each compacted sample are measured.