Computer Basics

- Ansar

Computer Basics
 The History of Computer
 How the ancient men used pebbles to count  The Generations of Computers

 Types of Mother Boards
 Types of Processor  Types of Storage Media (Zip, Cd, Hdd)

 Printers and Types
 USB, Key board, Mouse

History of Computers
 No Single man can claim the invention of

computer.  Ancient men used pebbles to count their sheep.  They also used to do simple calculations.

.  Note how the abacus is really just a representation of the human fingers: the 5 lower rings on each rod represent the 5 fingers and the 2 upper rings represent the 2 hands. It was popular in China.  Abacus can perform addition faster than modern calculator if a skilled operator can add up the numbers.C Chinese invented the mother of calculators ―Abacus‖  Abacus was used for only for basic arithmetic operations such as addition and subtraction. Japan and Russia.Abacus – Mother of Calculators  In about 500 B.

Napier’s Bones. where the logarithm values were carved on ivory sticks which are now called Napier's Bones.  But Napier also invented an alternative to tables. .  The magic ingredient is the logarithm of each operand.  In 1617 an eccentric (some say mad) Scotsman named John Napier invented logarithms  The technology that allows multiplication to be performed via addition. which was originally obtained from a printed table.

Napier's slide rule  Napier's invention led directly to the slide rule. first built in England in 1632 and still in use in the 1960's by the NASA engineers of the Mercury. . and Apollo programs which landed men on the moon. Gemini.

Motherboards  The Main Circuit board on the microcomputer  There are two types – Baby AT – Baby ATX  The difference between is the – Physical size and dimensions. – The general layout and feature placement .

. Descendents of these punched cards have been in use ever since (remember the "hanging chad" from the Florida presidential ballots of the year 2000?). held together in a long row by rope.Punched Cards  In 1801 the Frenchman Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a power loom that could base its weave (and hence the design on the fabric) upon a pattern automatically read from punched wooden cards.

Punch Cards  By selecting particular cards for Jacquard's loom you defined the woven pattern [photo © 2002 IEEE] .

 This machine would be able to compute tables of numbers. such as logarithm tables. which he called the Difference Engine. .Difference Engine  By 1822 the English mathematician Charles Babbage was proposing a steam driven calculating machine the size of a room.

Hollerith desk     Hollerith's invention. . known as the Hollerith desk Consisted of a card reader which sensed the holes in the cards A gear driven mechanism which could count A large wall of dial indicators (a car speedometer is a dial indicator) to display the results of the count.

S.  This was the first programmable digital computer made in the U. But it was not a purely electronic computer. .Harvard Mark I computer  One early success was the Harvard Mark I computer which was built as a partnership between Harvard and IBM in 1944.

Generation of Computers  The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. . more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.  Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed  The way computers operate. resulting in increasingly smaller. cheaper.

Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence .1956-1963: Transistors  Third Generation .1964-1971: Integrated Circuits  Fourth Generation .1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes  Second Generation .Generation of Computers  First Generation .1971-Present: Microprocessors  Fifth Generation .

1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes  The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry  They were enormous in size.  Input was based on punched cards and paper tape.  They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity  It generated a lot of heat. and they could only solve one problem at a time. and output was displayed on printouts.  Relied on machine language to perform operations. taking up entire rooms. . which was often the cause of malfunctions.First Generation .

the U.S.First Generation . Census Bureau in 1951 . The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client.1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes  The UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) and ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) computers are examples of first-generation computing devices.

The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s. allowing computers to become smaller. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube. more energy-efficient and more reliable than their firstgeneration predecessors Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. faster.Second Generation-1956-1963: Transistors  Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the     second generation of computers. . cheaper. The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.

 Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips.  Which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. .Third Generation-1964-1971: Integrated Circuits  The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. called semiconductors. which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system  Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.Third Generation-1964-1971: Integrated Circuits  Instead of punched cards and printouts. .

Fourth Generation-1971-Present: Microprocessors  The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers  As thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. .  What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand.

.on a single chip.  In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user. and  In 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. developed in 1971. located all the components of the computer  The central processing unit and memory to input/output controls .Fourth Generation-1971-Present: Microprocessors  The Intel 4004 chip.

Fifth Generation .  The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. based on artificial intelligence. . that are being used today. still in development  Though there are some applications.  The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and selforganization. such as voice recognition.Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence  Fifth generation computing devices.

.Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence  Games Playing: programming computers to play games      such as chess and checkers Expert Systems: programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example.Fifth Generation . some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms) Natural Language: programming computers to understand natural human languages Neural Networks: Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains Robotics: programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli Nano technology will radically change the face of computers in years to come.

– the general layout and feature placement .Motherboard  The main circuit board on the microcomputer  There are two types – Baby AT – ATX  The difference between is the – physical size and dimensions.

Baby AT Motherboards  They have two power connections .

ATX Motherboard .

AT or ATX ATX features:  -Integrated I/O port connectors  -Integrated PS/2 mouse connector  -Reduced drive bay interference  -Reduced expansion card interference .

 The term processor has generally replaced the term CPU (central processing unit). .  The processor in a personal computer or that is embedded in small devices is often called a microprocessor.Processor  The logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instruction that drive a computer.

IV .Common Processors  The Pentium  The Athlon  The Pentium Pro  The Duron  The Pentium II. III.

the leads on either side of a DIMM are electrically – independent. but with this – primary difference: unlike the metal leads on either side of a SIMM. . A DIMM is similar to a SIMM. which are – ―tied together‖ electrically.Memory Types – Today’s most common is DIMM – Dual In-Line Memory ModuleDIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module)—A printed circuit board with gold or – tin contacts and memory devices.

They connected to the motherboard with a 30 pin edge connector. and hence came the term bank of memory. . – There was room for two modules. or 4 MB RAM. and were popular in the 286. – The modules were 8 bits wide. When they were first introduced.Memory Types  Also SIMMs – SIMM stands for Single Inline Memory Module. 2. – They came out with 1. 386. and 486 series of PC’s. This meant that the 16-bit processors like the 286 and 386 needed two SIMMs in a pair in order to function properly.

SIMM / DIMM  DIMMs have a small circle on either side  SIMMs have a small notch cut out on one end  DIMMs are much larger than SIMMs .

Common Types of SDRAM  –PC100  –PC133  –DDR  PC100 SDRAM on a 100MHz (or faster) system bus will provide a performance boost  The DDR SDRAM design can effectively double or increase even more the speed of operation up to at least 200MHz / 400 MHz / 800 MHz .