Power Plants
BY : HARSHAD PATEL
Outline
Brayton cycle
Open
Close
Advantages of gas turbine plant
Improvement of efficiency of gas turbine plant
Brayton Cycles – Ideal For Gas Turbine Engines
Brayton Cycle :
Proposed by George Brayton for use in the Reciprocating OilBurning
Engine at around 1870.
Fresh air at Ambient Conditions is drawn into
the Compressor, where its Temp. and Pr. are
raised.
HighPr. air proceeds into the Combustion
Chamber, where the fuel is burned at
Constant Pr., with Increase in Temp.
Resulting HighTemp. gases then enter the
Turbine, where they expand to the Atm. Pr.
while producing Power.
Exhaust Gases leaving the turbine are thrown
out (not recirculated), as an Open Cycle.
Brayton Open Cycle
Location Pr. Level Temp. Level
1 atm atm
2
↑ ↑
3
↑ ↑↑
4
↓ ↓
Gas Turbines usually operate on an Open Cycle.
Brayton Open Cycle
Brayton Closed Cycle
Compression and Expansion processes remain the same.
Combustion process is replaced by a ConstantPressure Heat Addition process
from an external source.
Exhaust process is replaced by a ConstantPressure Heat Rejection Process to
the ambient air.
Brayton Closed Cycle
Combustion process is replaced by a ConstantPressure
Heat Addition process from an external source.
Exhaust process is replaced by a ConstantPressure
Heat Rejection Process to the ambient air.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Power Plant
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Power Plant
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Power Plant
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Power Plant
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Power Plant
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Made up of Four Internally Reversible processes:
Brayton Closed Cycle – Analysis
12 Isentropic Compression (in a Compressor)
23 ConstantPressure Heat Addition
34 Isentropic Expansion (in a Turbine)
41 ConstantPressure Heat Rejection
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Brayton Closed Cycle – Analysis
Neglecting changes in Kinetic and Potential energies, the Energy Balance
for a SteadyFlow Process, on a Unit–Mass Basis :
( ) ( ) ( )
in out in out exit inlet
q q w w h h ÷ + ÷ = ÷
( ) ( )
3 2 3 2 in P
q h h C T T = ÷ = ÷
( ) ( )
4 1 4 1 out P
q h h C T T = ÷ = ÷
Thermal Efficiency of Ideal Brayton Cycle :
( )
( )
( )
( )
4 1
,
3 2
1 4 1
2 3 2
1 1
1
1
1
P
net out
th Brayton
in in
P
C T T
w q
q q
C T T
T T T
T T T
q
÷
= = ÷ = ÷
÷
÷
= ÷
÷
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Processes 12 and 34 are Isentropic,
P
2
= P
3
and P
4
= P
1
.
Brayton Closed Cycle – Analysis
1 1
2 2 3 3
1 1 4 4
T P P T
T P P T
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
÷ ÷
   
= = =
 
 
\ . \ .
Substituting and simplifying the equation :
,
1
1
1
th Brayton
p
r
¸
¸
q
  ÷

\ .
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
2
1
p
P
r
P
=
where;
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Power Plants – Applications
Two Major Application Areas :
1. Aircraft Propulsion
2. Electric Power Generation.
Electric Power Generation
Aircraft Propulsion
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Compared to SteamTurbine and Diesel Propulsion Systems, Gas Turbine offers :
1. Greater Power for a given size and weight,
2. High Reliability,
3. Long Life,
4. More Convenient Operation.
5. Engine Startup Time reduced from 4 hrs to less than 2 min…!!
Gas Turbine Power Plants – Advantages
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
2. Increasing the Efficiencies of Turbomachinery Components :
1. Increasing the Turbine Inlet (Firing) Temperatures :
 540 °C in the 1940s to 1425 °C and even higher today.
 Development of New Materials +
Innovative Cooling Techniques for the critical components.
Cycle Efficiency  Improvements
 Advanced techniques for ComputerAided Design.
 Aerodynamic Design with minimal losses.
3. Adding Modifications to Basic Cycle :
 Efficiencies of early gas turbines are practically doubled by incorporating
Intercooling,
Regeneration (or Recuperation), and
Reheating.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Cycle – Intercooling
Net Work Output of Gas Turbine can be ↑ by ↓ the Compressor Work Input.
Multistage + Intercooling…!!!
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Cycle – Intercooling
Three Internally Reversible processes:
1c Isentropic Compression,
till Pr. is P
i
cd ConstantPressure Cooling,
↓ from T
c
to T
d
d2 Isentropic Compression,
State 2.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Work Input per unit Mass Flow on the P–V Diagram : 1–c–d–2–a–b–1.
Gas Turbine Cycle – Intercooling
Without Intercooling : Single Stage Isentropic Compression from State 1 to State 2’.
Work Area ≡ 1–2’–a–b–1.
Crosshatched Area ≡ Reduction in work due to
Intercooling.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Air is compressed from 100 kPa, 300 K to 1000 kPa in a twostage compressor with
Intercooling between stages. The intercooler pressure is 300 kPa. The air is cooled back to
300 K in the intercooler before entering the second compressor stage. Each compressor
stage is isentropic. For steadystate operation and negligible changes in kinetic and
potential energy from inlet to exit, determine :
(a) the temperature at the exit of the second compressor stage .and,
(b) the total compressor work input per unit of mass flow.
(c) Repeat for a single stage of compression from the given inlet state to the final
pressure.
Example 3
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Example 3….cntd.
Process 1→c :
( )
K
kPa
kPa
K T
P
P
T
T
c
c c
62 . 410
100
300
300
4 . 1
1 4 . 1
1
1 1
=


.

\

= ¬


.

\

=
÷
÷
¸
¸
Process d→2 :
( )
K
kPa
kPa
K T
P
P
T
T
d d
17 . 423
300
1000
300
4 . 1
1 4 . 1
2
1
2 2
=


.

\

= ¬


.

\

=
÷
÷
¸
¸
…ANS
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Example 3….cntd.
Total Compressor Work Input per unit of Mass :
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) { }
kg
kJ
K kg
kJ
T T T T C
h h h h
m
W
d c P
d c
C
96 . 234
300 17 . 423 300 62 . 410
.
005 . 1
2 1
2 1
=
÷ + ÷
(
¸
(
¸
=
÷ + ÷ =
÷ + ÷ =


…ANS
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Example 3….cntd.
For Single Stage Isentropic Compression :
Process 1→3 : ( )
K
kPa
kPa
K T
P
P
T
T
c
21 . 579
100
1000
300
4 . 1
1 4 . 1
1
1
3
1
3
=


.

\

= ¬


.

\

=
÷
÷
¸
¸
Compressor Work Input per unit of Mass :
( ) ( )
( )


.

\

=
÷
(
¸
(
¸
=
÷ = ÷ =


kg
kJ
to Compared
kg
kJ
K kg
kJ
T T C h h
m
W
P
C
96 . 234 60 . 280
300 21 . 579
.
005 . 1
1 3 1 3
…ANS
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Cycle – Reheat
For Metallurgical Reasons, the Temperature of the Gaseous Combustion Products
entering the turbine must be limited.
This temperature can be controlled by providing Air in Excess of the Amount
required to Burn the Fuel in the combustor.
As a consequence, the gases exiting the combustor contain Sufficient Air to support
the Combustion of Additional Fuel.
Gas Turbine Power Plants take advantage of the Excess Air by means of a Multistage
Turbine with a Reheat Combustor between the stages. With this arrangement the Net
Work per Unit of Mass Flow can be increased.
NOTE : Reheat is used for ↑ in Output Power.
It may not ↑ the Efficiency…!!
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Cycle – Reheat
After expansion from State 3 to State a in the first turbine, the gas is Reheated at
Constant Pressure from State a to State b.
The expansion is then completed in the second turbine from State b to State 4.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
From the earlier results,
kg
kJ
W
kg
kJ
Q
kg
kJ
W
T
in
C
43 . 624
81 . 992
19 . 213
=
=
=



Let the turbine in the basic plant of Example 1 have one reheat. If the inlet temperature
at the second stage is same as that of first, compute the net power and efficiency.
Example 5
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
bar P P P
i
55 . 2 ) 5 . 6 1 ( ) (
2 1
= × = =
Optimum Intermediate Pr :
Process 3→a : ( )
K
bar
bar
K T
P
P
T
T
a
i a
11 . 1148
55 . 2
5 . 6
1500
4 . 1
1 4 . 1
1
3 3
=


.

\

= ¬


.

\

=
÷
÷
¸
¸
Turbine Work :
( ) ( )
( ) 
(
¸
(
¸
=
÷
(
¸
(
¸
=
÷ = ÷ =
kg
kJ
K
K kg
kJ
T T C h h W
a P a T
64 . 353
114811 1500
.
005 . 1
3 3 1 ,
Example 5….cntd.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
¸
(
¸
× =
× = + =
kg
kJ
kg
kJ
W W W W
T T T Total T
3 . 707
64 . 353 2
2
1 , 2 , 1 , ,
…ANS
Example 5….cntd.
Optimum Intermediate Pr. +
Same Inlet Temp @ both Stages (i.e. T
3
= T
b
)
Heat Input to Reheater :
( ) ( ) ( ) 
(
¸
(
¸
= ÷
(
¸
(
¸
= ÷ = ÷ =

kg
kJ
K
K kg
kJ
T T C h h Q
a b P a b heater in
65 . 353 11 . 1148 1500
.
005 . 1
Re ,
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Example 5….cntd.
Efficiency :
% 7 . 36
) 65 . 353 81 . 992 (
) 19 . 213 3 . 707 (
Re ,
=
+
÷
=
+
÷
=
 
kg
kJ
kg
kJ
Q Q
W W
heater in in
C T
th
q
…ANS
NOTE : Efficiency ↓ from 41.42 % to 36.7 %.
BUT, W
T
↑ from 624.43 kJ/kg to 707.3 kJ/kg...!!
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Cycle – Regeneration
Turbine Exhaust Temperature of a gas turbine is normally much above the ambient
temperature.
Accordingly, the Turbine Exhaust Gas has a potential for use (Availability or
Exergy) that would be irrevocably lost if the gas would discarded directly to the
surroundings.
One way of utilizing this potential is by means of a Heat Exchanger called a
Regenerator, which allows the air exiting the compressor to be preheated before
entering the combustor, thereby reducing the amount of fuel required to be burned
in the combustor.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Cycle – Regeneration
Regenerator : Counterflow Heat Exchanger.
Hot Turbine Exhaust Gas and the Air leaving the Compressor pass in
Opposite Directions.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Turbine exhaust gas is cooled from State 4 to State y, while the air exiting the
compressor is heated from State 2 to State x.
Gas Turbine Cycle – Regeneration
Hence, a heat transfer is required only to ↑ the air temperature from State x to State
3, rather than from State 2 to State 3.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Net Work Developed per unit of mass flow is not altered by the addition of a
regenerator.
Gas Turbine Cycle – Regeneration
Since the Q
in
is ↓, η ↑.
Q
in
↓ as h
x
↑; and thus T
x
↑.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Cycle – Regenerator Effectiveness
1 2 A
T
Hot Fluid
Cold Fluid
T
h1
T
c1
T
h2
T
c2
T
h
T
c
1 2 A
T
Hot Fluid
Cold Fluid
T
h1
T
c1
T
h2
T
c2
T
h
T
c
T
cold,exit
< T
hot,in
Limiting Case : T
cold,exit
= T
hot,in
….Reversibility…!!!
Regenerator Effectiveness =
Ratio of the Actual Enthalpy
Increase to the Maximum
Theoretical Enthalpy Increase
of the air flowing through the
compressor side of the
regenerator.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Cycle – Regenerator Effectiveness
2 4
2
h h
h h
x
regen
÷
÷
= q
2 4
2
T T
T T
x
÷
÷
=
As Q
in
approaches Reversibility,
h
x
approaches h
4
.
η tends to Unity. (100%)….!!!
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Assuming that the regenerator incorporated into the basic plant of Example 1 is 90 %
efficient, calculate the increase in thermal efficiency.
Example 6
From the earlier results,
kg
kJ
W
kg
kJ
Q
kg
kJ
W
K T K T
K T bar P
K T bar P
T
in
C
43 . 624
81 . 992
19 . 213
679 . 878 1500
132 . 512 5 . 6
300 1
4 3
2 2
1 1
=
=
=
= =
= =
= =



T
3
=1500 K
T
1
=300 K
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Example 6….cntd.
 
 
K T
K
K T
T T
T T
h h
h h
x
x
x x
regen
0 . 842
) 132 . 512 679 . 878 (
) 132 . 512 (
9 . 0
2 4
2
2 4
2
=
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
= q
T
3
=1500 K
T
1
=300 K
Heat Input :
( ) ( ) ( ) 


.

\

(
¸
(
¸
= ÷
(
¸
(
¸
= ÷ = ÷ =

kg
kJ
to Compared
kg
kJ
K
K kg
kJ
T T C h h Q
x P x in
81 . 992
26 . 661 842 1500
.
005 . 1
3 3
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Example 6….cntd.
T
3
=1500 K
T
1
=300 K
Efficiency :
( ) % 42 . 41 % 19 . 62
26 . 661
) 19 . 213 43 . 624 (
to Compared
kg
kJ
kg
kJ
Q
W W
in
C T
th
=
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
÷
=
÷
=
 
q
…ANS
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II
Gas Turbine Cycle – Intercooling + Reheat + Regenerator
Thank You !
Outline
Brayton cycle
Open Close
Advantages of gas turbine plant
Improvement of efficiency of gas turbine plant
Brayton Cycles – Ideal For Gas Turbine Engines
Brayton Cycle :
Proposed by George Brayton for use in the Reciprocating OilBurning Engine at around 1870.
Brayton Open Cycle
Gas Turbines usually operate on an Open Cycle. Fresh air at Ambient Conditions is drawn into the Compressor, where its Temp. and Pr. are
raised.
HighPr. air proceeds into the Combustion Chamber, where the fuel is burned at Constant Pr., with Increase in Temp. Resulting HighTemp. gases then enter the Turbine, where they expand to the Atm. Pr. while producing Power.
Location 1 2 3 Pr. Level atm Temp. Level atm
↑ ↑
↑ ↑↑
Exhaust Gases leaving the turbine are thrown out (not recirculated), as an Open Cycle.
4
↓
↓
Brayton Open Cycle .
Brayton Closed Cycle Compression and Expansion processes remain the same. Combustion process is replaced by a ConstantPressure Heat Addition process from an external source. Exhaust process is replaced by a ConstantPressure Heat Rejection Process to the ambient air. .
Exhaust process is replaced by a ConstantPressure Heat Rejection Process to the ambient air. .Brayton Closed Cycle Combustion process is replaced by a ConstantPressure Heat Addition process from an external source.
Gas Turbine ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
Gas Turbine ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
Gas Turbine ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
Gas Turbine ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
Gas Turbine Power Plant ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
Gas Turbine Power Plant ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
Gas Turbine Power Plant ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
Gas Turbine Power Plant ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
Gas Turbine Power Plant ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
Brayton Closed Cycle – Analysis Made up of Four Internally Reversible processes: 12 23 34 41 ME0207 SEMIV Isentropic Compression (in a Compressor) ConstantPressure Heat Addition Isentropic Expansion (in a Turbine) ConstantPressure Heat Rejection Applied Thermodynamics – II .
Brayton CP T 4 T1 wnet qout 1 1 q in q in CP T3 T 2 1 4 3 T T 1 T T 2 T1 1 T2 1 ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .Brayton Closed Cycle – Analysis Neglecting changes in Kinetic and Potential energies. the Energy Balance for a SteadyFlow Process. on a Unit–Mass Basis : q in q in q out h h C T T h h C T T 3 2 P 3 2 4 1 P 4 1 q out win wout hexit hinlet Thermal Efficiency of Ideal Brayton Cycle : th .
rp P2 P1 Applied Thermodynamics – II ME0207 SEMIV . T2 P2 T1 P1 1 P3 P4 1 T3 T4 Substituting and simplifying the equation : th . P2 = P3 and P4 = P1.Brayton Closed Cycle – Analysis Processes 12 and 34 are Isentropic. Brayton 1 1 r p 1 where.
Aircraft Propulsion ME0207 SEMIV Electric Power Generation Applied Thermodynamics – II . Aircraft Propulsion 2. Electric Power Generation.Gas Turbine Power Plants – Applications Two Major Application Areas : 1.
2. Greater Power for a given size and weight. More Convenient Operation. Gas Turbine offers : 1. 5. Engine Startup Time reduced from 4 hrs to less than 2 min…!! ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II . Long Life.Gas Turbine Power Plants – Advantages Compared to SteamTurbine and Diesel Propulsion Systems. 3. High Reliability. 4.
Increasing the Efficiencies of Turbomachinery Components : . Regeneration (or Recuperation). Increasing the Turbine Inlet (Firing) Temperatures : . Adding Modifications to Basic Cycle : .Cycle Efficiency .540 °C in the 1940s to 1425 °C and even higher today. . .Efficiencies of early gas turbines are practically doubled by incorporating Intercooling. 3. ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .Development of New Materials + Innovative Cooling Techniques for the critical components.Advanced techniques for ComputerAided Design.Improvements 1.Aerodynamic Design with minimal losses. 2. and Reheating.
Gas Turbine Cycle – Intercooling Net Work Output of Gas Turbine can be ↑ by ↓ the Compressor Work Input. Multistage + Intercooling…!!! ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
till Pr. is Pi ConstantPressure Cooling.Gas Turbine Cycle – Intercooling Three Internally Reversible processes: 1c Isentropic Compression. cd ↓ from Tc to Td d2 Isentropic Compression. ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II . State 2.
Work Area ≡ 1–2’–a–b–1.Gas Turbine Cycle – Intercooling Work Input per unit Mass Flow on the P–V Diagram : 1–c–d–2–a–b–1. Crosshatched Area ≡ Reduction in work due to Intercooling. ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II . Without Intercooling : Single Stage Isentropic Compression from State 1 to State 2’.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .Example 3 Air is compressed from 100 kPa. For steadystate operation and negligible changes in kinetic and potential energy from inlet to exit. 300 K to 1000 kPa in a twostage compressor with Intercooling between stages. Each compressor stage is isentropic. (c) Repeat for a single stage of compression from the given inlet state to the final pressure. The air is cooled back to 300 K in the intercooler before entering the second compressor stage. determine : (a) the temperature at the exit of the second compressor stage . (b) the total compressor work input per unit of mass flow.and. The intercooler pressure is 300 kPa.
Tc Pc T1 P1 1 Process 1→c : 300 kPa T c 300 K 100 kPa 410.62 K 1.17 K …ANS 1.Example 3….41 1.4 P2 Process d→2 : T d Pd T2 1 1000 kPa T 2 300 K 300 kPa 423.4 ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .41 1.cntd.
cntd.Example 3…. Total Compressor Work Input per unit of Mass : WC h c h1 h 2 h d C P T c T1 T 2 T d kJ 1.K kJ 234.17 300 kg.62 300 423.005 410.96 kg …ANS m ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
21 K 1.60 …ANS kJ kg kJ Compared to 234.005 579.96 kg ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .41 1.Example 3…. For Single Stage Isentropic Compression : P3 Process 1→3 : T1 P1 T3 1 1000 kPa T c 300 K 100 kPa 579.K 280.4 Compressor Work Input per unit of Mass : WC m h 3 h1 C P T 3 T1 kJ 1.21 300 kg.cntd.
the gases exiting the combustor contain Sufficient Air to support the Combustion of Additional Fuel. Gas Turbine Power Plants take advantage of the Excess Air by means of a Multistage Turbine with a Reheat Combustor between the stages. As a consequence. With this arrangement the Net Work per Unit of Mass Flow can be increased. the Temperature of the Gaseous Combustion Products entering the turbine must be limited. NOTE : Reheat is used for ↑ in Output Power.Gas Turbine Cycle – Reheat For Metallurgical Reasons. It may not ↑ the Efficiency…!! ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II . This temperature can be controlled by providing Air in Excess of the Amount required to Burn the Fuel in the combustor.
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II . The expansion is then completed in the second turbine from State b to State 4.Gas Turbine Cycle – Reheat After expansion from State 3 to State a in the first turbine. the gas is Reheated at Constant Pressure from State a to State b.
19 kg Qin 992.Example 5 Let the turbine in the basic plant of Example 1 have one reheat.43 kJ kg kJ kg ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II . compute the net power and efficiency. If the inlet temperature at the second stage is same as that of first.81 WT 624. kJ WC 213. From the earlier results.
K kJ 353.41 1.5 bar 2. 4 P3 Process 3→a : T a Pi T3 1 Turbine Work : WT .Example 5….64 kg ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .005 1500 114811K kg.11 K 6.1 h 3 h a C P T 3 T a kJ 1. Optimum Intermediate Pr : Pi ( P1 P2 ) (1 6.5) 2.55 bar 1.cntd.55 bar T a 1500 K 1148.
T3 = Tb) WT .11K 353.K ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II . Optimum Intermediate Pr.65 kJ Qin .64 kg kJ 707.005 kg kg.1 WT . + Same Inlet Temp @ both Stages (i. 2 2 WT .1 kJ 2 353.Re heater hb h a CP Tb T a 1.e.Example 5….3 …ANS kg Heat Input to Reheater : kJ 1500 1148.Total WT .cntd.
7 %.43 kJ/kg to 707.Example 5…..42 % to 36.cntd.. BUT.!! Applied Thermodynamics – II ME0207 SEMIV .3 kJ/kg.3 213. WT ↑ from 624.Re heater (707.65) kg 36.7 % …ANS NOTE : Efficiency ↓ from 41.81 353. W T W C Qin Qin .19) Efficiency : th kJ kg kJ (992.
which allows the air exiting the compressor to be preheated before entering the combustor. One way of utilizing this potential is by means of a Heat Exchanger called a Regenerator. ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .Gas Turbine Cycle – Regeneration Turbine Exhaust Temperature of a gas turbine is normally much above the ambient temperature. thereby reducing the amount of fuel required to be burned in the combustor. Accordingly. the Turbine Exhaust Gas has a potential for use (Availability or Exergy) that would be irrevocably lost if the gas would discarded directly to the surroundings.
Gas Turbine Cycle – Regeneration Regenerator : Counterflow Heat Exchanger. Hot Turbine Exhaust Gas and the Air leaving the Compressor pass in Opposite Directions. ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II . while the air exiting the compressor is heated from State 2 to State x. Hence.Gas Turbine Cycle – Regeneration Turbine exhaust gas is cooled from State 4 to State y. rather than from State 2 to State 3. a heat transfer is required only to ↑ the air temperature from State x to State 3.
and thus Tx ↑.Gas Turbine Cycle – Regeneration Net Work Developed per unit of mass flow is not altered by the addition of a regenerator. Qin ↓ as hx ↑. η ↑. ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II . Since the Qin is ↓.
exit < Thot. side of the Tc2 A 1 Cold Fluid 1 2 Tcold.in ….Reversibility…!!! Applied Thermodynamics – II .Gas Turbine Cycle – Regenerator Effectiveness Regenerator Effectiveness = Ratio of the Actual Enthalpy T Th1 Tc1 Hot Fluid Th T Th1 Tc1 Th2 Tc Cold Fluid Tc Hot Fluid Th Increase to the Maximum Theoretical Enthalpy Increase of the air flowing through the Th2 Tc2 2 A compressor regenerator.exit = Thot.in ME0207 SEMIV Limiting Case : Tcold.
hx approaches h4 . (100%)…. η tends to Unity.Gas Turbine Cycle – Regenerator Effectiveness h x h2 h4 h2 regen T x T2 T4 T2 As Qin approaches Reversibility.!!! ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
43 ME0207 SEMIV kJ kg kJ kg kJ kg Applied Thermodynamics – II T1=300 K . calculate the increase in thermal efficiency.81 WT 624.19 Qin 992. P 1 bar 1 T1 300 K T3=1500 K P2 6.132 K T3 1500 K T4 878.5 bar T2 512.679 K WC 213. From the earlier results.Example 6 Assuming that the regenerator incorporated into the basic plant of Example 1 is 90 % efficient.
regen 0.K kJ Compared to 992.cntd.132) K 842.81 kg ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .26 kg kg.005 1500 842K 661.Example 6….0 K T1=300 K Heat Input : kJ kJ Q in h 3 hx C P T 3 Tx 1.9 Tx h x h2 h4 h2 T x T2 T4 T2 T3=1500 K (878.132) K (T x 512.679 512.
42 % T1=300 K ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .Example 6….cntd.19) kg kJ 661.26 kg 62.43 213.19 % …ANS Compared to 41. Efficiency : th W T W C Qin T3=1500 K kJ (624.
Gas Turbine Cycle – Intercooling + Reheat + Regenerator ME0207 SEMIV Applied Thermodynamics – II .
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