Reticular layer of the dermis  The reticular layer consists of dense irregular connective tissue with thick bundles of type I collagen fibers and thick elastic fibers. . There is no boundary between the papillary and reticular layers.

Sensory nerve endings :-encapsulated mechanoreceptors (Pacinian corpuscles) .Reticular layer of the dermis  The reticular layer contains:Hair follicles and hair root Smooth muscle (arrector pili) Sweat glands Sebaceous glands.

Hair follicles and hair  Hair follicles are tubular invaginations of the epidermis into the reticular layer of the dermis. a middle thick cortex and an outer thin layer of keratin called cuticle synthesized by the cortical cells. .  The cells forming the hair root are called matrix which forms an inner medulla. Each follicle contains a hair arising by cell division from the deep end of the hair follicle called hair bulb which also has melanocytes.  CT of the dermis projects into the hair bulb forming the hair papilla which contains blood capillaries and sensory nerve endings.

It extends obliquely to insert into the papillary layer of the dermis. .Arrector pili  Smooth muscle attached to the connective tissue sheath surrounding the hair follicle.

The ducts pass spirally through the epidermis to open into the surface of the skin.simple coiled tubular glands located deep in the dermis or in the underlying hypodermis. and dark cells containing secretory granules which secrete mucous. .  The ducts of these glands are lined by stratified cuboidal epithelium consisting of two layers.  The secretory unit of the sweat gland consists of light cells which secrete water and electrolytes.Sweat glands Sweat is produced by two types of sweat glands:1. Eccrine sweat glands:.

There are about 3 to 4 million eccrine sweat glands distributed in skin almost all over the body.Sweat glands  The cells of eccrine sweat glands release their secretion into the lumen by exocytosis which is called merocrine method of secretion. Contraction of these cells presses the secretory unit and moves the secretion into the duct .  Between the secretory cells and the basal lamina are contractile myoepithelial cells with cytoplasmic processes surrounding the whole secretory unit.

Apocrine sweat glands are located only in the axilla. and the anal region.Sweat glands 2.  They have a larger lumen than eccrine sweat glands. the areola of the nipple.they secrete by merocrine method . They are affected by sex hormones and are inactive before puberty. They are found in the deeper portions of the dermis and hypodermis  The ducts of apocrine sweat glands open into the hair follicles  Although they are called apocrine.

 Like apocrine sweat glands sebaceous glands are affected by sex hormones and they are inactive before puberty.  The gland cells are pale-staining and contain abundant SER and lipid droplets. .Sebaceous Glands  Sebaceous glands are branched acinar glands found in the dermis and hypodermis. They are most abundant in the skin of the face and the scalp.

The dead cells are replaced by division of the basal cells.Sebaceous Glands  The lumen of the acinus is full of dead cells with lipid droplets containing the oily substance called sebum which is released in the lumen of the gland when the cells die (holocrine secretion).  The duct is lined by stratified squamous epithelium and opens into the hair follicle. The oil protects the hair and the skin surface. .

Stratum granulosum has few cells and is not well developed.Types of skin  There are two types of skin:1.  Thin skin contains hair follicles. Thin skin: Covers the whole body except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. sweat glands.  The epidermis has a thin stratum corneum (keratin) on the surface and there is no definite stratum lucidum. sebaceous glands and arrector pili muscle .

Thick skin The epidermis has a very thick stratum corneum (keratin) on the surface. 2. There are no hair follicles. Thick skin: Covers the palms and soles. sebaceous glands or arrector pili muscle. .

Thick skin  The epidermal ridges and dermal papillae are well developed in the thick skin of the palms and soles.  Dermatoglyphs (fingerprints) on the skin surface correspond to the arrangement of the epidermal ridges .

It is the superficial fascia deep to the skin. Excessive subcutaneous fat is called panniculus adiposus.  The hypodermis contains adipose tissue. . It is not part of the skin.Hypodermis (subcutaneous CT)  The hypodermis is a loose connective tissue found under the skin (subcutaneous CT).

bacterial infection and drying due to covering with stratified squamous keratinized epithelium 2. Reception of stimuli for touch.Functions of the skin  1. Synthesis of vitamin D: using ultraviolet energy from the sun light . Excretion from sweat glands 5. pressure and pain: due to the sensory nerve endings. Protection against injury. temperature. 4. Regulation of body temperature: due to extensive network of blood vessels and sweat glands 3.