A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically or pneumatically driven and may use chain, fibre or wire rope as its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of a lifting hook.

The basic hoist has two important characteristics to define it: Lifting medium and power type. The lifting medium is either wire rope, wrapped around a drum, or load-chain, raised by a pulley with a special profile to engage the chain. The power can be provided by different means. Common means are hydraulics, electrical and air driven motors. Both the wire rope hoist and chain hoist have been in common use since the 1800s. however; Mass production of an electric hoist did not start until the early 1900's and was first adapted by Germany. A hoist can be built as one integral-package unit, designed for cost-effective purchasing and moderate use, or it can be built as a built-up custom unit, designed for durability and performance.

1 Builders hoist with small gasoline engine. the chain hoist or chain block and the wire rope or cable type.Common small portable hoists are of two main types. . Fig. Chain hoists may have a lever to actuate the hoist or have a loop of operating chain that one pulls through the block (known traditionally as a chain fall) which then activates the block to take up the main lifting chain.

for pulling.Ratchet lever hoists have the advantage that they can usually be operated in any orientation. The lift chain of a chain hoist is far larger than the lift wheel over which chain may function. Chain block type hoists are usually suitable only for vertical lifting . For a given rated load wire rope is lighter in weight per unit length but overall length is limited by the drum diameter that the cable must be wound onto. lifting or binding. a high-performance chain hoist may be of significantly smaller physical size than a wire rope hoist rated at the same working load. Therefore. .

This control system included interlocks to close the throttle valve at the end of trip and to prevent opening the throttle again until the winding engine was reversed. The control system also incorporated a governor to control the speed of the hoist and indicator wheels to show the hoist operator the positions of the skips in the mine shaft. but it is apparent that the control systems of many 20th century steam hoists also incorporated controllers of significant complexity. . Hoist controllers need both velocity and absolute position references taken. The term is used primarily in the context of electrically operated hoists.A hoist controller is the controller for a hoist. The hoist controllers for modern electric mining hoists have long included such features as automatic starting of the hoist when the weight of coal or ore in the skip reaches a set point. typically taken from the winding drum of the hoist. automatic acceleration of the hoist to full speed and automatic deceleration at the end of travel. 2 Hoist. Consider the control system of the Quincy Mine No. Modern hoist controllers replace many of the mechanical analog mechanisms of earlier controllers with digital control systems.

generally designed for the transportation of materials in the waste. dumpster bodies. scrap and demolition industri es. lift and hoist the container onto the chassis of the truck. and strict guidelines which must be followed to ensure that the container is secured on the truck in transit. The system employs a series of hydraulic rams to hook. recycling.  Hydraulic hook lift hoists are mounted on heavy duty trucks to enable hauliers to change out flatbeds. Primarily used in conjunction with tilt frame bodies and specialised containers. and similar containers. There are several configuration options. .

Typical hook lift hoist (single lift/dump cylinder configuration) .

Lift/dump cylinder(s) Two configurations are typical. whilst increasing unit cost. improves load handling stability when dumping on uneven ground. The dual lift/dump cylinder design. retains true hook lift capabilities. but can be unstable while dumping on uneven ground. The single lift dump cylinder design reduces unit cost. both suitable for either single or dual pivot designs. .

Single-drum hoist Double-drum hoist Friction (Koepe) hoist Blair-multi rope hoist Conical drum Spiral drum .

unhook or that could potentially break Complete in-cab operation .a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) The flexibility offered by the hydraulic hook lift hoist system offers several advantages: Reduced licensing fees through reduced fleet size Ground level loading and unloading Exact positioning (dropping off) of containers Ability to get in and out of tight spaces Quick exchange of containers: system allows container to be lift/dropped in around 90 seconds Ability to engage a container up to 30° off centre when picking up No cables to hook up.

524 mm) of the shortest recommended body . This is particularly the case in single lift/dump cylinder configurations Container lengths are fairly inflexible.a) b) c) d) The main disadvantages of the system are revealed on uneven ground: If below grade reach is small. it can be difficult to set down or pick up container Load handling stability. particularly while dumping. as hook lift hoists are designed to carry bodies within 3 to 5 ft (914 to 1. can be compromised at maximum dump angle.


Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics . robotics has been often seen to mimic human behaviour. or militarily.Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design. Throughout history. The concept and creation of machines that could operate autonomously dates back to classical times. whether domestically. Many robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs. robotics is a rapidly growing field. design. but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. operation and application of robots and computer systems for their control. and often manage tasks in a similar fashion. or simply just resemble humans. exploring shipwrecks. and mines. Today. construction. in hazardous or manufacturing processes. sensory feedback. and information processing. . and build new robots that serve various practical purposes. as we continue to research. commercially. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans.

so the former is generally cited as the word's origin. In some of Asimov's other works. According to the Oxford English Dictionary. (Rossum's Universal Robots). which premiered in 1921. since the science and technology of electrical devices is electronics. March 1942).R. he assumed robotics already referred to the science and technology of robots.U. Asimov was unaware that he was coining the term.The word robotics was derived from the word robot. in his science fiction short story "Liar!". The word robot comes from the Slavic word robot. which is used to refer forced labour. . which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karle Čapekin his play R.[4][5] However. the word robotics was first used in the print by Isaac Asimov. the original publication of "Liar!" predates that of "Runaround" by five months. he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround (Astounding Science Fiction. published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction.

which can be difficult to manage. A tether connecting the robot to a power supply would remove the power supply from the robot entirely. can also be used. Generators. Designing a battery powered robot needs to take into account factors such as safety. However. This has the advantage of saving weight and space by moving all power generation and storage components elsewhere. often some type of internal combustion engine.At present mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used as a power source. this design does come with the drawback of constantly having a cable connected to the robot. require heat dissipation and are relatively heavy. such designs are often mechanically complex and need fuel. cycle lifetime and weight. Many different types of batteries can be used as a power source for robots. They range from lead acid batteries which are safe and have relatively long shelf lives but are rather heavy to silver cadmium batteries that are much smaller in volume and are currently much more expensive. However. .

animal). may be interesting in a military context as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot assistant (see DEKA's project Slingshot Stirling engine on how the system would operate) .Potential power sources could be: Pneumatic (compressed gases) Hydraulics (liquids) flywheel energy storage organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion) faeces (human.

and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear. or compressed air. the parts which convert stored energy into movement.Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot. chemicals. . powered by electricity.

. and where the predominant form of motion is rotational. These motors are often preferred in systems with lighter loads. particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. They are typically powered by compressed air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator).The vast majority of robots use electric motors. Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning. and often have quicker direction changes. often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines.

[16][17] . particularly walking humanoid robots.A spring can be designed as part of the motor actuator. Pneumatic artificial muscles. They have been used for some robot applications. are special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside them. It has been used in various robots. to allow improved force control. also known as air muscles.

They have been used for some small robot applications EAPs or EPAMs are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 380% activation strain) from electricity. Nitinol or Flexinol Wire.Muscle wire.[22] . and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots.[21] fly.[20] and to allow new robots to float. also known as Shape Memory Alloy. swim or walk. is a material that contracts slightly (typically under 5%) when electricity runs through it.

cause linear or rotary motion. one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line. These motors are already available commercially. speed. and being used on some robots . There are different mechanisms of operation. whereby tiny piezoceramic elements. vibrating many thousands of times per second.[23] Another type uses the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate and drive a screw.Recent alternatives to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. The advantages of these motors are nanometre resolution. These work on a fundamentally different principle. and available force for their size.

Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and out jump humans. . Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter wire of this material. The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent. with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nanotubes.Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development.

Sensors allow robots to receive information about a certain measurement of the environment. This is essential for robots to perform their tasks. and to provide real time information of the task it is performing. to give the robots warnings about safety or malfunctions. or internal components. and act upon any changes in the environment to calculate the appropriate response. They are used for various forms of measurements. .

producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object.Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. which functions like a real one—allowing patients to write with it. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core. play piano and perform other fine movements. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects. Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand in 2009. type on a keyboard. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed. called Smart Hand. The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. The prosthesis has sensors which enable the patient to sense real feeling in its fingertips . Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips.

computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light orinfra-red light. such as video sequences and views from cameras. The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. some of the learning-based methods developed within computer vision have their background in biology . at different levels of complexity. robots' "eyes" must also be able to focus on a particular area of interest. Robots can also be equipped with multiple vision sensors to be better able to compute the sense of depth in the environment.Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. There is a subfield within computer vision where artificial systems are designed to mimic the processing and behaviour of biological systems. The image data can take many forms. In most practical computer vision applications. and also adjust to variations in light intensities. Like human eyes. but methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common. Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process. The sensors are designed using solid-state physics. As a scientific discipline. Also. the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task.

Most robot arms have replaceable effectors.Robots need to manipulate objects. for example a humanoid hand.[33] . pick up. their design. while the "arm" is referred to as manipulator. each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. modify. while a few have one very general purpose manipulator. and usage consult the book "Robot Grippers". Thus the "hands" of a robot are often referred to as end effectors. For the definitive guide to all forms of robot end-effectors. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced. destroy. or otherwise have an effect.

. as well as allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four wheeled robot would not be able to. These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts. Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels.For simplicity most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of continuous tracks.

A one-wheeled balancing robot is an extension of a twowheeled balancing robot so that it can move in any 2D direction using a round ball as its only wheel. Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed recently. such as Carnegie Mellon University's "Ballbot" that is the approximate height and width of a person. and Tohoku Gakuin University's "BallIP". they have the potential to function better than other robots in environments with people.[45] Because of the long. thin shape and ability to maneuver in tight spaces.[46] .

Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels. Examples include NASA's Urban Robot "Urbie" . therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots. where the robot must drive on very rough terrain. However.Tank tracks provide even more traction than a six-wheeled robot. they are difficult to use indoors such as on carpets and smooth floors.

Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. Robot. which would provide better mobility and energy efficiency than other locomotion methods. Typically. uneven terrain. due to these robots being significantly easier to construct. however none have yet been made which are as robust as a human. such as AMBER lab which was established in 2008 by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Texas A&M University. Some of the methods which have been tried are: . Hybrids too have been proposed in movies such as I. None can walk over rocky. robots on 2 legs can walk well on flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs. Walking robots can be used for uneven terrains. where they walk on 2 legs and switch to 4 (arms+legs) when going to a sprint. There has been much study on human inspired walking.Many other robots have been built that walk on more than two legs. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs.

and the difference is obvious to human observers. exactly opposed by the floor reaction force (the force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot). it still requires a smooth surface to walk on. In this way. some of whom have pointed out that ASIMO walks as if it needs the lavatory. this is not exactly how a human walks.The Zero Moment Point (ZMP) is the algorithm used by robots such as Honda's ASIMO. . However. and some dynamic balancing is used (see below). ASIMO's walking algorithm is not static. the two forces cancel out. However. leaving no moment (force causing the robot to rotate and fall over). The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces (the combination of earth's gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walking).

run. a robot with only one leg. For a full list of these robots. As the robot falls to one side. . could stay upright simply by hopping. the algorithm was generalised to two and four legs. it would jump slightly in that direction. The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick.Several robots. and bound. see the MIT Leg Lab Robots page. Soon. Initially. in order to catch itself. successfully demonstrated very dynamic walking.A quadruped was also demonstrated which could trot. built in the 1980s by Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg Laboratory. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing somersaults . and a very small foot. pace.

.A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic balancing algorithm. which is potentially more robust than the Zero Moment Point technique. as it constantly monitors the robot's motion. Another example is the TU Delft Flame.[66] which is so stable. it can even jump. and places the feet in order to maintain stability. This technique was recently demonstrated by Any bots' Dexter Robot.

like ASIMO . a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. Using this technique. It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a gentle slope. using only gravity to propel themselves. This technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more efficient than ZMP walkers.Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency.

AGVs are discussed later in this article. However domestic robots for cleaning and maintenance are increasingly common in and around homes in developed countries. Mobile robots are also found in industry. or uses vision or lasers.Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. Because of this most humans rarely encounter robots. An AGV is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor. They also appear as consumer products. Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research. Modern robots are usually used in tightly controlled environments such as on assembly lines because they have difficulty responding to unexpected interference. An example of a mobile robot that is in common use today is the automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV). Robots can also be found in military applications . for entertainment or to perform certain tasks like vacuum cleaning. military and security environments.

[43] . The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of a manipulating industrial robot in ISO 8373: "an automatically controlled. manipulator programmable in three or more axes. the European Robotics Research Network (EURON) and many national standards committees."[42] This definition is used by the International Federation of Robotics. multipurpose. reprogrammable. One of the most common type of end effecter is a gripper assembly. which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications.Industrial robots usually consist of a jointed arm (multilinked manipulator) and an end effecter that is attached to a fixed surface.

The term "service robot" is less well-defined.or fully autonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of humans and equipment. . excluding manufacturing operations. "A service robot is a robot which operates semi. IFR has proposed a tentative definition.Most commonly industrial robots are fixed robotic arms and manipulators used primarily for production and distribution of goods.

such as a sufferer of a disease like Multiple Sclerosis. The Care-Providing Robot FRIEND. and those which aid in the overall systems such as pharmacies and hospitals. .Robots in healthcare have two main functions. Those which assist an individual.


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