• • • • • ALIFYA HASTA – 57 AVINASH JAGTAP – 66 GROUP – 7 PRANAV KAPADIA – 77 DIV - B KARAN KHANOLKAR – 87 LOVINA M. – 102 . Tanenbaum.html http://www. Computer Networks and Internet http://home.iitk.Book References Andrew S.redhat. Comer. PrenticeHall Doughlas Computer Network.

. The computers can be geographically located anywhere.Introduction to Computer Networks Computer Networks Computer network connects two or more autonomous computers.

MAN & WAN Network in small geographical Area (Room. Building or a Campus) is called LAN (Local Area Network) Network in a City is call MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) Network spread geographically (Country or across Globe) is called WAN (Wide Area Network) .LAN.

disks.Applications of Networks Resource Sharing Hardware (computing resources. printers) Software (application software) Information Sharing Easy accessibility from anywhere (files. databases) Search Capability (WWW) Communication Email Message broadcast Remote computing Distributed processing (GRID Computing) .

A network topology describes the layout of the wire and devices as well as the paths used by data transmissions. . and other devices are connected. printers.Network Topology The network topology defines the way in which computers.

all the devices on a bus topology are connected by one single cable.Bus Topology Commonly referred to as a linear bus. .

switches. When used with network devices that filter frames or packets. and routers.Star & Tree Topology The star topology is the most commonly used architecture in Ethernet LANs. When installed. like bridges. . this topology significantly reduces the traffic on the wires by sending packets only to the wires of the destination host. Larger networks use the extended star topology also called tree topology. the star topology resembles spokes in a bicycle wheel.

which takes the data out of the frame.Ring Topology A frame travels around the ring. Single ring – All the devices on the network share a single cable Dual ring – The dual ring topology allows data to be sent in both directions. stopping at each node. The frame then continues around the ring until it finds the destination node. If a node wants to transmit data. . it adds the data as well as the destination address to the frame.

. Implementing the mesh topology is expensive and difficult.Mesh Topology The mesh topology connects all devices (nodes) to each other for redundancy and fault tolerance. It is used in WANs to interconnect LANs and for mission critical networks like those used by banks and financial institutions.

Network Components Physical Media Interconnecting Devices Computers Networking Software Applications .

Networking Devices HUB. Wireless Access Points. Switches. . Routers. Modems etc.

Introduction to Applications E-mail Searchable Data (Web Sites) E-Commerce News Groups Internet Telephony (VoIP) Video Conferencing Chat Groups Instant Messengers Internet Radio .

so that all users in the network have the same protection against viruses. etc. software and other resources with multiple computers and multiple users. etc. USB keys. the same backup system and the same maintenance schedule. Internet connection. such as a single printer. The ability to keep your computer safe. making file sharing easier and more efficient.Advantages of computer Networks The ability to easily share information. rather than having it transferred and shared through email. . The sharing of hardware by connecting all computers to one set of hardware and resources. You can also apply the same security features across all computers. since it’s much easier to control information on one shared system.

maintain a scheduled backup system that saves your data to either a second drive or cloud-based service. . To keep your network safe. To keep your network safe. all computers residing on the network would be affected. If the main server crashes. since physical access to the computer is not required in order to access its data.Disadvantages of computer Networks Networked computers are more susceptible to hackers. use security software and regularly change your passwords. Computer viruses can spread rapidly through a network. install a high-quality anti-virus program and run regular virus scans. To avoid losing your information.

and 100-Gigabit Ethernet (GE) Converged fiber channel and Ethernet networks Internet security Cloud computing .CURRENT TRENDS IN NETWORKS 40.

. anytime and any format”. and virtually all aspects of existence.IMPACT OF NETWORKS ON BUSINESS The internet has revolutionized communications and methods of commerce by allowing various computer networks around the world to interconnect. culture. Networks have ushered in a digital society which now affects everyday life. groups. safety. personal identity. Computer networks have opened the flood gates of information and enables instant access to information – “anywhere.

” newsgroups. . “chat rooms. and audio and video transmission and allow people to work collaboratively at many different locations.IMPACT OF NETWORKS ON BUSINESS cont.. Computer networks support human communication via electronic mail (e-mail). Networks now contribute to the globalization of production and capital markets by reducing the cost of information and communication.