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Microprocessors

Binary Number System

The CPU

About CPU

Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices
• The Data Bus
– System of pathways used for communication and the protocol and methods used for transmission

The Bus and Bus Lines

Data Bus

System Clock

Clock Speed
• Of motherboard
– Measured in megahertz (MHz)

• Of CPU
– Measured in gigahertz (GHz)

Basic Components of a CPU
• Input/output (I/O) unit

• Arithmetic logic unit(s) (ALU)
• Control unit

How the CPU Works

Attributes Used to Rate CPUs
• Processor core speed (measured in gigahertz)

• Word size and data path
• Efficiency/special functionality of programming code • System bus speeds the processor supports

Attributes Used to Rate CPUs
• Amount of memory included with the CPU (internal and external cache) • Type of RAM, motherboard, and chip set the processor supports • Multiprocessor ability

The Pentiums
• Two ALUs (a true multiprocessor)

• 64-bit external path size and two 32-bit internal paths (one for each ALU) • Terminology
– Bus speed – Processor speed – Multiplier – Memory cache

Memory Cache

CPU

Generatio n

Process Technology

Number transistors

Data/Address Bus width (bits) 8 / 16 8 / 20 16 / 20 16 / 24 32 / 32 16 / 32 32 / 32 32 / 32 32 / 32 8

GP Register width (bits)

Memory Bus speed

Internal Clock speed

Intel 8080 Intel 8088 Intel 8086 Intel 80286 Intel 80388 DX Intel 80386 SX Intel 80486 DX Intel 80486 DX2 AMD 5x86

1st 1st 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd 4th 4th 4th

6.0 microns 3.0 microns 3.0 microns 1.5 microns 1.5 / 1.0 microns 1.5 / 1.0 microns 1.0 microns 0.8 microns 0.35 microns

6 000 29 000 29 000 134 000 275 000 275 000 1.2 million 1.2 million 1.2 million

2 MHz 4.77-8 MHz 4.77-8 MHz 6-20 MHz 16-33 MHz 16-33 MHz 25-50 MHz 25-40 MHz 33 MHz

2 MHz 4.77-8 MHz 4.77-8 MHz 6-20 MHz 16-33 MHz 16-33 MHz 25-50 MHz 50-80 MHz 133 MHz

16 16 16 32 32 32 32 32

CPU

Gen

Process Techgy (micron)

Number transistors

Data/Addr Bus width (bits)

GP Register width (bits) 32 32

Memory Bus speed

Internal Clock speed

Intel Pentium (P5/P54C) Cyrix 6x86 (M1)

5th 5th

0.8-0.0.35 0.6

3.1 million 3.0 million

64 / 32 64 / 32

60-66 MHz 50-75 MHz

60-200 MHz 100-150 MHz (P120-200) 75-116 MHz (P75-166) 166-233 MHz

AMD K5
Intel Pentium MMX (P55C) Intel Pentium Pro AMD K6 (NX686)

5th

0.35

4.3 million

64 / 32

32

50-66 MHz

5th

0.35

5.5 million 5.5 million (+ IL2C) 8.8 million

64 / 32

32

66 MHz

6th 6th

0.6 / 0.35 0.35 / 0.25

64 / 36 64 / 32

32 32

60-66 MHz 66 MHz

150-200 MHz 166-266 MHz

Intel Pentium II
Intel Pentium III AMD Athlon Intel Pentium 4 Intel IA-64 Itanium AMDX86-64 (K8 - Hammer)

6th
6th 7th 7th 8th 8th

0.35 / 0.25
0.18 0.18 / 0.13 0.18 / 0.13 0.18 0.13/0.09

7.5 million
28 million 37-54 million 42 million 25 million (+IC) 110 million

64 / 36
64 / 36 64 / 36 64 / 36 64 / 44 64 / 36

32
32 32 32 64 64

66-100 MHz
100-133 MHz 200-333 MHz 400-533 MHz 400 MHz N/A

233-450 MHz
450-1200 MHz 500-2250 MHz (XP3000+) 1.4-3.3 GHz 733-1000 MHz >2000 MHz (>XP3400+)

Processor socket types

Pentium III

Pentium 4

AMD Processors (continued)

VIA C3 Processor

64-Bit Processors
• Intel Itanium

• (Intel Pentium 4 6xx series)
• AMD 64 bit Processors i.e AMD Opteron • Simultaneous 32 & 64 bit Processor by AMD – Turion, Athlon 64 Fx

The Itanium 2 Processor

AMD 64-Bit Processors

CPU Heat Sinks and Cooling Fans

Combination Heat Sink and Cooling Fan

CPU Package Types
• SECC

• SECC2
• SEP

• FC-PGA

• FC-PGA2
• PAC

• PPGA
• PGA

• CPGA
• OPGA

• OOI/OLGA

• μPGA

CPU Slots and Sockets
• Motherboard and processor must match

• Slots 1 and 2 are proprietary Intel slots
• Slot A and Socket A are proprietary AMD connectors

CPU Slots and Sockets (continued)
Socket/ Slot
Socket 7

Processors
AMD K6-2, AMD K6-III, Intel Pentium MMX
Intel Pentium II, Intel Pentium III, Intel Celeron Intel Pentium II Xeon (Servers) AMD Athlon (K7) Intel Pentium III, Intel Celeron, VIA C3 AMD Athlon (Thunderbird), AMD Athlon XP (Palomino), AMD Athlon XP (Thoroughbred), AMD Duron (Spitfire, Morgan)

System Clock (FSB)
66, 100, 133 MHz

Slot 1 Slot2 Slot A Socket 370

66, 100, 133 MHz

100 MHz (200 MHz DDR) 100, 133 MHz

Socket A (Socket 462)

100 MHz (200 MHz DDR), 133 MHz (266 MHz DDR)

Socket 423

Intel Pentium 4 (Willamette), Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood) Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood), Intel Celeron (Willamette)

100 MHz (400 MHz quad-pumped)

Socket 478

100 MHz (400 MHz quad-pumped), 133 MHz / (533 MHz quad-pumped)

CPU Slots and Sockets (continued)

Land Grid Array

CPU Slots and Sockets (continued)

More info: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CPU_socket

CPU Voltage Requirements

CPU Voltage Regulator
• Dual-voltage CPUs

• Single-voltage CPUs
• Voltage regulator module (VRM) controls amount of voltage to the CPU

CPU Voltage Regulator (continued)

Accelerated Hub Architecture

Replace a CPU?
• Cost • Cooling • Performance