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MUSCLES OF MASTICATION

Group 3

MUSCLES OF MASTICATION
The muscles which are required for mastication are known as the muscles of mastication  These muscles help mainly in the movement of the mandible and not the maxilla as maxilla is an integral part of the skull and the mandible being the only movable bone in the skull.

PRIMARY MUSCLES OF MASTICATION

the masseter is the second most efficient masticatory muscle.  -Masseter muscle is a powerful muscle because of its Multipennate arrangement of fibers  .MASSETER MUSCLE It is one of the main muscle which helps in the process of mastication  -In humans.  -Its origin and insertion make it very useful for the movement of the jaw and for applying good bite force for mastication.

 -The fibers of this muscle are broad.The muscle is divided into 2 parts  Superficial  Deep  . extending from the region of the second molar on the surface of the mandible to the surface of the ramus.MASSETER MUSCLE -The masseter muscle extends from the zygomatic arch to the ramus and body of the mandible.

MASSETER MUSCLE Origin:  Superficial layer – anterior 2/3rd of lower border of zygomatic arch & zygomatic processof maxilla  Middle layer – anterior 2/3rd of deep surface & posterior 1/3rd of lower border of zygomatic arch  Deep layer – deep surface of zygomatic arch  .

MASSETER MUSCLE Insertion :  Superficial layer –lower part of lateral surface of ramus of mandible  Middle layer –middle part of ramus  Deep layer – upper part of the ramus & coronoid process  .

MASSETER MUSCLE The main function of masseter muscle is  Elevation of the mandible  lateral movements of the mandible for efficient chewing and grinding of the food  unilateral chewing  Retraction of the mandible  .

MASSETER MUSCLE .

 -It is large shaped in appearance and covers the Temporal area of the skull.  .  Origin and Insertion:  From the Parietal bone of the skull and is inserted on the coronoid process of the mandible.TEMPORALIS MUSCLE -This is the muscle which helps in elevation of the mandible. It is one of the muscles of mastication.

 It is also a contributor to side to side grinding movement.  .TEMPORALIS MUSCLE Functions:  Elevation of the mandible  Retraction of the mandible.  Crushing of food between the molars.  Posterior fibers draw the mandible backwards after it has been protruded.

TEMPORALIS MUSCLE .

 -It is divided into 2 heads  Origin:  Upper head – infratemporal surface & crest of greater wing of sphenoid bone  Lower head – lateral pterygoid plate  .LATERAL PTERYGOID MUSCLE -This is a small muscle which also helps in the mastication process.

LATERAL PTERYGOID MUSCLE Insertion :  Pterygoid fovea on the anterior surface of neck of mandible  Anterior margin of articular disc & capsule of TMJ  Functions:  Depresses the mandible  Protrudes it forward for opening of the jaw  Side Movements  .

LATERAL PTERYGOID MUSCLE .

 .  Insertion is seen on the Medial angle of the Mandible. and from the maxillary tuberosity.  Origin and Insertion :  It Arises from the deep head the lateral pterygoid plate.MEDIAL PTERYGOID MUSCLE -It is a thick muscle of mastication.

 Helps in side to side movement.  .  Closes the jaw.MEDIAL PTERYGOID MUSCLE Functions:  Elevates the mandible.

MEDIAL PTERYGOID MUSCLE .

ACCESSORY MUSCLES OF MASTICATION Group 3 .

SUPRAHYOID MUSCLES It is the region above or superior to the hyoid bone in the neck.  . stylohyoid. and the geniohyoid muscles. mylohyoid.  It includes the digastric.

immediately in front of the top of the sternocleidomastoid.  The digastric is made up of an anterior and posterior belly.  . one for each side of the jaw and neck.SUPRAHYOID MUSCLES  The digastric muscle double muscle of the throat which is located under the chin.  The anterior belly extends from the digastric fossa of the mandible  The posterior belly extends from the mastoid notch of the temporal bone. behind and below the corner of the jaw.

Digastric muscle .

 It is located just in front of the digastric muscle. which gives the characteristic in and out appearance of swallowing  It lifts the base of the tongue up when swallowing.  .SUPRAHYOID MUSCLES  The stylohyoid muscle muscle located in the neck  thin and slender and is attached to the hyoid bone  The muscle lifts the hyoid bone during swallowing. Which lifts the tongue back when swallowing.

Stylohyoid muscle .

SUPRAHYOID MUSCLES  The mylohyoid muscle triangular muscle on each side of the mouth that is located above the anterior belly of the digastric muscle  extends from the inner surface of the mandible to the hyoid bone  forms the floor of the mouth  depresses the mandible and elevates the hyoid  It is important in swallowing  .

Mylohyoid muscle .

 acts to raise the hyoid bone and draw it forward and to retract and depress the lower jaw  .SUPRAHYOID MUSCLES  The geniohyoid muscle it is a narrow muscle situated superior to the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle.

Geniohyoid muscle .

and the omohyoid muscles.  .INFRAHYOID MUSCLES These muscles are often referred to as strap muscles due to their ribbon-like appearance. thyrohyoid.  It includes the sternohyoid.  These muscles anchor the hyoid bone and depress the hyoid and larynx during swallowing and speaking.  They are located inferior to the hyoid bone.

larynx and pharynx. strap muscle that is superficial except inferiorly where it is covered by the sternocleidomastoid muscle. narrow.  . C2.  It also helps to steady the hyoid during movements of the tongue.  Innervation: C1.  Superior attachment: body of hyoid bone.  It depresses the hyoid bone after it has been elevated during swallowing.INFRAHYOID MUSCLES  The Sternohyoid Muscle This is a thin.  Inferior attachment: manubrium of sternum and medial end of clavicle. C3 from ansa cervicalis.

Sternohyoid Muscle .

 Innervation: C1 via hypoglossal nerve (CN XII).  Inferior attachment: oblique line of thyroid cartilage.INFRAHYOID MUSCLES  The Thyrohyoid Muscle This muscle appears to be the superior continuation of the sternothyroid muscle.  It is mainly responsible for preventing food from entering the larynx during swallowing (it pulls the larynx and hyoid bone together)  .  Superior attachment: inferior body of body and greater horn of hyoid bone.  It depresses the hyoid bone and elevates the larynx.

Thyrohyoid Muscle .

 Superior attachment: inferior border of hyoid bone. C3 by a branch of ansa cervicalis.  .  Innervation: C1. retracts and steadies the hyoid during swallowing and speaking. which is connected to the clavicle by a fascial sling.INFRAHYOID MUSCLES  The Omohyoid Muscle This muscle has two bellies that are united by an intermediate tendon.  The omohyoid muscle is an important landmark in the neck because it divides the anterior and posterior triangles into smaller triangles.  Inferior attachment: superior border of scapula near the suprascapular notch.  It depresses. C2.

Omohyoid Muscle .