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Amitava Nag

Assistant Professor Dept. of IT Academy of Technology amitava.nag@aot.edu.in
9/26/2012 Lecture 3 1

 The path follows a fixed sequence of intermediate links.  A logical channel gets defined on each physical link. • Dedicated to the connection.CIRCUIT SWITCHING A dedicated communication path is required between two stations. .

) In circuit switching. • For deallocation of network resources. three steps are required for communication: Connection establishment • Required before data transmission. Data transfer • Can proceed at maximum speed.CIRCUIT SWITCHING (CONT. Connection termination • Required after data transmission is over. .

Figure 1: CIRCUIT SWITCHING .

CIRCUIT SWITCHING (CONT. • Very inefficient for bursty traffic. • For connection establishment. • Acceptable for voice communication. There is an initial delay.) Drawbacks: Channel capacity gets dedicated during the entire duration of communication. .

The basic technology has evolved over time. • Basic concept has remained the same.PACKET SWITCHING Modern form of long-distance data communication. • Widely used for long-distance data communication. • A link can be shared. . • Network resources are not dedicated.

The chunks are called packets. • Each intermediate network node receives a whole packet. etc. Every packet contains a header. • Decides the route. Relevant information for routing.)  Data are transmitted in short packets (~ Kbytes). .  Packet switching is based on store-and-forward concept.PACKET SWITCHING (CONT. • Forwards the packet along the selected route. • • • • A longer message is broken up into smaller chunks.

Figure 2: Packet Switching .

• Typically bursty in nature. Buffering and data rate conversion can be performed easily.  Suitable for computer-generated traffic.) Advantages:  Links can be shared. Some packets may be given priority over others. if desired. so link utilization is better. .PACKET SWITCHING (CONT.

How are the packets transmitted? Two alternative approaches: • Virtual Circuits • Datagram .

Analogy: Telephone system. A route is established before packet transmission starts. The links comprising the path are not dedicated. • Different from circuit switching in this respect. . All packets follow the same path.VIRTUAL CIRCUIT APPROACH Similar in concept to circuit switching.

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Analogy: Postal system. Every intermediate node has to take routing decisions dynamically.  Every packet must contain source and destination addresses.  Makes use of a routing table.DATAGRAM APPROACH Basic concept:  No route is established beforehand.  Each packet is transmitted as an independent entity. .  Does not maintain any history.