Amitava Nag

Assistant Professor Dept. of IT Academy of Technology
9/26/2012 Lecture 3 1

 The path follows a fixed sequence of intermediate links. • Dedicated to the connection. .CIRCUIT SWITCHING A dedicated communication path is required between two stations.  A logical channel gets defined on each physical link.

• For deallocation of network resources. three steps are required for communication: Connection establishment • Required before data transmission.CIRCUIT SWITCHING (CONT. .) In circuit switching. Connection termination • Required after data transmission is over. Data transfer • Can proceed at maximum speed.


• Acceptable for voice communication.) Drawbacks: Channel capacity gets dedicated during the entire duration of communication. • For connection establishment. • Very inefficient for bursty traffic. There is an initial delay. .CIRCUIT SWITCHING (CONT.

The basic technology has evolved over time.PACKET SWITCHING Modern form of long-distance data communication. • A link can be shared. • Network resources are not dedicated. • Basic concept has remained the same. . • Widely used for long-distance data communication.

 Packet switching is based on store-and-forward concept. • • • • A longer message is broken up into smaller chunks. • Each intermediate network node receives a whole packet. etc. • Forwards the packet along the selected route. Relevant information for routing.PACKET SWITCHING (CONT. The chunks are called packets.)  Data are transmitted in short packets (~ Kbytes). . • Decides the route. Every packet contains a header.

Figure 2: Packet Switching .

Buffering and data rate conversion can be performed easily. Some packets may be given priority over others.) Advantages:  Links can be shared.  Suitable for computer-generated traffic. • Typically bursty in nature.PACKET SWITCHING (CONT. . so link utilization is better. if desired.

How are the packets transmitted? Two alternative approaches: • Virtual Circuits • Datagram .

A route is established before packet transmission starts. . • Different from circuit switching in this respect. All packets follow the same path. The links comprising the path are not dedicated.VIRTUAL CIRCUIT APPROACH Similar in concept to circuit switching. Analogy: Telephone system.


 Does not maintain any history. Every intermediate node has to take routing decisions dynamically. .  Makes use of a routing table.DATAGRAM APPROACH Basic concept:  No route is established beforehand.  Every packet must contain source and destination addresses.  Each packet is transmitted as an independent entity. Analogy: Postal system.

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