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xtensible Markup Language


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• XML is useful for representing any structured or unstructured data. • Structured data refers to data that is identifiable because it is organized in a structure. • Unstructured data refers to data that has no identifiable structure. For example: Videos, email • Any such document following XML rules are said to be as XML document.
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We define our own tags.ANATOMY OF XML DOCUMENT • XML stands for Extensible Markup Language. Page 3 . • It is similar to HTML but designed to describe data. • XML tags are not predefined. • It uses a Document Type Definition (DTD) or an XML schema to describe the data.

It defines the document with list of its elements and attributes.DOCUMENT TYPE DEFINITION • DTD defines a legal building block of an XML document. • DTD can be declared in 2 ways:– Inside an XML document(internal DTD) – As an external reference(externalDTD) Page 4 .

it should be wrapped in a DOCTYPE definition with the following syntax: <!DOCTYPE root_element[element_declaration]> Page 5 .INTERNAL DTD DECLARATION • If DTD is declared inside XML file.

body)> <!ELEMENT to (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT from (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT heading (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT body (#PCDATA)> ]> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend</body> </note> Page 6 .EXAMPLE <?xml version="1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE note [ <!ELEMENT note (to.from.heading.

Example: <!ELEMENT b(#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT p(#PCDATA|a|b)*> in this code element b must contain character data only.element p can contain a mixture of any combination of character data <a>. • • • !ELEMENT from defines the from element to be of type "#PCDATA“ !ELEMENT heading defines the heading element to be of type "#PCDATA“ !ELEMENT body defines the body element to be of type "#PCDATA" Page 7 . an element may contain character data as well as child element in an orbitary order.<b> elements.from.THE DTD ABOVE IS INTERPRETED LIKE THIS: • • • • !DOCTYPE note defines that the root element of this document is note !ELEMENT note defines "to.body“ that the note element contains four elements: !ELEMENT to defines the to element to be of type "#PCDATA“(parsed character data) it is keyword to specify mixed content.heading.

it should be wrapped in a DOCTYPE definition with the following syntax: <!DOCTYPE root-element SYSTEM "filename"> Page 8 .EXTERNAL DTD DECLARATION • If the DTD is declared in an external file.

EXAMPLE <?xml version="1.0"?> <!DOCTYPE note SYSTEM "note.dtd"> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note> Page 9 .

Page 10 . • An XML schema describes the structure of an XML document.XML SCHEMA • XML Schema is an XML-based alternative to DTD.

• An XML Schema: • defines elements that can appear in a document • defines attributes that can appear in a document • defines which elements are child elements Page 11 .WHAT IS AN XML SCHEMA? • The purpose of an XML Schema is to define the legal building blocks of an XML document. just like a DTD.

Cont… • defines the order of child elements • defines the number of child elements • defines whether an element is empty or can include text • defines data types for elements and attributes • defines default and fixed values for elements and attributes Page 12 .

xsd" that defines the elements of the XML document above ("" targetNamespace="" xmlns="" elementFormDefault="qualified"> Page 13 .xml"): <?xml version="1.0"?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.AN XML SCHEMA • The following example is an XML Schema file called "note.w3.

• It is used to describe data and focus on what data is… • All elements must be properly nested within each other • XML is dynamic • Is case-sensitive HTML • Data is store inside the files. • It is used to display data and focus on how data looks • Not much necessary • It is static • Not case-sensitive Page 14 .DIFFERENCE BETWEEN XML & HTML XML • Data is stored in separate XML files. • It is user defined language. • It is predefined language.


data can be stored in separate XML files. the data is stored inside your HTML with XML.XML SEPARATES DATA FROM HTML When HTML is used to display data. Page 16 .

Since XML data is stored in plain text form at. XML provides a software and hardware independent way of sharing data.XML CAN BE USED TO SHARE DATA With XML. plaintext files can be used to share data. Page 17 .


XML ELEMENTS • XML elements must have a closing tag. <p> This is a paragraph <p> This is a another paragraph • In XML all elements must have a closing tag. <p> This is a paragraph</p> <p> This is a another paragraph</p> Page 19 . • The following example is legal in HTML.

XML TAGS ARE CASE SENSITIVE With XML. the tag <Letter> is different from <letter> opening and closing tags must therefore be written in same case. <message> THIS IS INCORRECT </Message> <message> THIS IS CORRECT </message> Page 20 .

some elements can be improperly nested. all elements must be properly nested. <b><i> This text is bold and italic </b></i> • In XML.ALL ELEMENTS MUST BE PROPERLY NESTED • In HTML. <b><i> This text is bold and italic </i></b> Page 21 .

THANK YOU…! Page 22 .