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Chapter 29

Support, Protection, and Movement

Integument Among Various Groups of Animals
Integument - outer covering that includes skin, hair, setae, scales, feathers & horns. - tough and pliable - provide mechanical protection against abrasion - provides moisture proofing for sealing water in or out - barrier against invasion by bacteria

The Skin
- protects underlying cells against damage by ultraviolet sunlight - In endothermic animals, it is concerned with temperature regulation including insulation and cooling. - contains sensory receptors. - excretory functions and sometimes respiratory functions - Skin pigmentation may assist in camouflage and signaling - Skin secretions may make the animal sexually attractive or influence other animals’ behaviors.

Invertebrate Integument
• • • • Protozoa have plasma membranes or a protective pellicle. Most multicellular invertebrates have complex tissue coverings. A molluscan epidermis is soft and contains mucous glands; some secrete the calcium carbonate shell. Cephalopods have a more complex integument of cuticle, simple epidermis, connective tissue, reflecting cells (iridocytes), and a thicker layer of connective tissue.

Arthropod Exoskeleton
a. Firmness of exoskeleton & jointed appendages - muscle attachment b. A single-layered epidermis or hypodermis secretes a cuticle with two zones : Procuticle and epicuticle c. Arthropod cuticle may remain soft and flexible as in small crustaceans and insect larvae. • Arthropod cuticle is one of the toughest animal materials, yet it is very light.

Two zones 1. Procuticle - thicker, inner, made of protein & chitin layers. 2. epicuticle – thin, nonchitinous, made of proteins and lipids, and provides moisture-proofing.

• Calcification – deposition of calcium carbonate in procuticle - cuticle is stiffened • Sclerotization – formation of highly resistant protein – Sclerotin

Vertebrate Integument and Derivatives

Structure
a. An example of vertebrate skin is frog or human skin. b. The thin, outer stratified epithelial layer is epidermis derived from ectoderm. c. The inner, thicker layer is dermis derived from mesoderm. d. The dermis contains blood vessels, collagenous fibers, nerves, pigment cells, fat cells and connective tissue cells, all to support and nourish the epidermis. e. The epidermis is stratified squamous epithelium. f. The basal part is made of cells that undergo frequent mitosis for renewal g. Dermis supports the epidermis; any bony structures derive from dermis tissue.

Dunkleosteus

Bothriolepsis

• Scales of contemporary fishes are bony dermal structures evolved from bony armor of early fishes.

Most amphibians lack dermal bones in their skin

• In reptiles, dermal bones form the armor of crocodilians, the beaded skin of lizards, and contribute to the shell of turtles.

• Teleosts – bony scales from dermis retained throughout life • Lizards – horny scales from epidermis; shed periodically

• Claws, beaks, nails and horns are made up of combinations of epidermal and dermal components.

Animal Coloration

a. Structural colors are produced by the physical structure of the surface tissues. b. More common are pigments, varied molecules that reflect specific light rays. c. In crustaceans, these pigments are in large cells with branching processes called chromatophores. d. Pigments may concentrate in the center of a cell or disperse throughout the cell for display.

• Melanins are black or brown polymers responsible for earth-colored shades. • Carotenoid pigments provide yellow and red colors often contained inside xanthophores. • Ommochromes and pteridines are responsible for yellow pigments of molluscs and arthropods. • Green is usually produced by yellow pigment overlying blue structural color. • Iridophores contain crystals of guanine or another purine rather than pigment; they produce silvery or metallic colors.

Primates have color vision But most mammals are color blind

• Mammals are relatively uncolorful, a fact related to their being mostly colorblind. • Primates are an exception, and the brilliant skin patches of baboons and mandrills reflect this. • Dermal melanophores deposit melanin in growing hair of mammals, providing the color.

Injurious Effects of Sunlight
a. Human sunburn is one demonstration of the damaging effect of ultraviolet radiation on cells. b. Protozoans or flatworms exposed to sun in shallow water are damaged or killed. c. Arthropod cuticle and scales, feathers and fur of the various vertebrates provide protection. d. Sunburn is caused by dermal and epidermal cells releasing histamines causing vessels to enlarge. e. A suntan is due to melanin pigment built up in deeper epidermis, and pigment darkening. f. High doses of sunlight in childhood cause genetic mutations that cause skin cancer when older.

Chapter 29
Support, Protection, and Movement
Skeletal Systems

Hydrostatic Skeletons
1. Many invertebrates use their body fluids as an internal hydrostatic skeleton. 2. Muscles in the body wall of an earthworm contract against the coelomic fluids that are incompressible.

Alternate contractions of longitudinal & circular muscles

Rigid Skeletons
• Rigid skeletons provide rigid elements to which muscles can attach. 2 Types : Exo and Endo 1) Exoskeleton - protective skeleton that often must be molted to allow growth - molluscs, arthropods & other inverts
e.g. molluscs - shell grows with the animal

• 2) endoskeleton - echinoderms and vertebrates. • Vertebrate endoskeleton composed of bone and cartilage - protects and supports - major reservoir for calcium and phosphorus - origin of blood cells

Notochord and Cartilage
• Notochord - semirigid supportive axial rod of the protochordates and all vertebrate larvae - Except in jawless vertebrates, it is surrounded or replaced by backbone during development

• Cartilage - major skeletal element of jawless fishes and elasmobranchs • Hyaline cartilage - protein gel interlaced with a meshwork of collagenous fibers - joints, support tracheal, laryngeal and bronchial rings

Bone
• living tissue with significant deposits of Ca++ • Strength of iron yet
1/3 as heavy

Bone Types
• Most bone develop from cartilage and is called endochondral or replacement bone. • Intramembranous bone - develops from sheets of embryonic cells, mainly the face and cranium.

• Cancellous or spongy bone - has an open, interlacing framework of bony tissue. • Some bones proceed to add additional salts to become compact bone.

Microscopic Structure of Bone
• Compact bone has a calcified bone matrix arranged in concentric rings. • Rings contain cavities (lacunae) filled with bone cells (osteocytes). • Lacunae are interconnected with canaliculi - distribute nutrients • The whole cylindrical structure is an osteon or haversian system.

Plan of the Vertebrate Skeleton
• The vertebrate skeleton is composed of the axial and appendicular skeleton 1)Axial - skull, vertebral column, sternum and ribs 2)Appendicular - limbs and pectoral and pelvic girdles

Skull
• Movement from water to land forced dramatic changes in body form. • Over time, many skull bones were lost or fused • Amphibians have from 50 to 95, mammals have 35 or fewer and humans have 29.

Vertebral Column
• main stiffening axis and serves the same function as a notochord. • Vertebrae are separated into cervical thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal. • In birds and humans, the caudal vertebrae are reduced in size and number and sacral vertebrae are fused • Humans have 7 cervical or neck vertebrae, 12 thoracic, and five lumbar or back vertebrae. • 1st cervical vertebra is the atlas - pivot • 2nd cervical vertebra is the axis - turn side-to-side

Ribs
• • • • • serve as stiffening rods and improve effectiveness of muscle contractions Some vertebrates have reduced ribs; In mammals, the ribs from the thoracic basket prevent collapse of the lungs. Primates other than humans have 13 pairs of ribs; humans have 12 pairs, rarely a 13th pair. Ribs of birds are flattened and the sternum is keeled for the attachment of flight muscles

Appendages
• Most vertebrates have paired appendages. • Fishes, except agnathans, have pectoral and pelvic girdles supporting pectoral and pelvic fins. • In tetrapods, the pelvic girdle is firmly attached to transmit force. • The pectoral girdle is more loosely attached to allow greater freedom for manipulation.

Effect of Body Size on Bone stress
Cross-section-to-volume-ratio • Ability of animals’ limbs to support a load decreases as animals increase in size. • The larger animal would have eight times the volume and eight times the weight. • Bone shape does not change much • Elephants and large dinosaurs had thick and robust bones but this decreases running speed.

Animal Movement
Mechanism • Important characteristic of animals, compared to plants • Most animal movement relies on a single fundamental mechanism: contractile proteins • contract when powered by ATP. • The most important protein contractile system is composed of actin and myosin.

• The acto-myosin system is almost universal and is found from protozoa to vertebrates.

3 principal kinds of animal mov’t
• Ameboid • Ciliary & flagellar • muscular

Ameboid Movement • found not only in amebas, but also in wandering cells of metazoans (sperm of nematodes) • Ameboid cells change shape by extending and withdrawing pseudopodia on any cell surface. • Locomotion is assisted by membrane-adhesion proteins that attach to the substrate to provide traction.

Ciliary Movement
Cilia - minute, hairlike, motile processes that extend from the surfaces of many animal cells. • found in all major animal groups (not in nematodes) • propel fluids & materials across epithelial surfaces in larger animals. • Each cilium contains a peripheral circle of nine double microtubules around two central microtubules. • each microtubule has a spiral array of protein subunits called tubulin.

Flagellar movement
The flagellum is whiplike, longer than a cilium and present in fewer numbers. • Flagella are found in flagellate protozoans, animal spermatozoa, sponges. • Flagella differ more in their beating pattern than in structure. • beats symmetrically with snakelike undulations to propel water parallel to the long axis.

• A cilium beats asymmetrically with a fast power stroke in one direction followed by a slow recovery; water is propelled parallel to the ciliated surface.

Muscular movement
Contractile Tissue • Contractile tissue is most highly developed in muscle cells, called fibers. • Can be arranged in so many combinations that any movement is possible.

Types of Vertebrate Muscle

Striated (skeletal) Muscle
• transversely striped with alternating dark and light bands. • organized into sturdy, compact bundles called fascicles • Skeletal muscles attach to skeletal elements and move the trunk, appendages & eyes • Skeletal muscle fibers are very long, cylindrical cells with many nuclei • Skeletal muscle, called voluntary muscle, is stimulated by motor fibers under conscious control

Smooth Muscle

• Smooth or visceral muscle lacks the alternating bands or striations. • Cells are long, tapering strands, each containing a single nucleus. • muscle cells form sheets of muscle circling the walls of the alimentary canal, blood vessels, respiratory passages, and urinary and genital ducts. • Controlled by the autonomic nervous system, contractions are involuntary and unconscious.

Cardiac Muscle

• has striations but is uninucleate with branching cells. • muscle tissue of the vertebrate heart and is seemingly tireless • It is fast acting and striated like skeletal muscle, but contraction is under autonomic control. • The heartbeat originates within the specialized muscle; the autonomic nerves merely speed up or slow down this rate.

Types of Invertebrate Muscle
2 varieties of invertebrate muscle • Bivalve Molluscan Adductor Muscles 1) Scallops use “fast” striated muscle fibers to close its valves during its swimming 2)The contracted state resembles a “catch mechanism” • Insect Flight Muscles 1) Some small flies can beat their wings faster than 1000 beats per second. 2) fibrillar muscle - contracts at frequencies much faster than any vertebrate muscle

Structure of Striated Muscle
• named for the periodic bands visible under the light microscope • Each cell or fiber is a multinucleated tube with many myofibrils packed together • The cell membrane folds in to form the sarcolemma. • A myofibril contains thick filaments of protein myosin and thin filaments of protein actin. • Thin filaments - held together by dense structure “Z line”

Thick Filaments • Each thick filament is made of myosin molecules packed together in a bundle. Thin Filaments • Thin filaments are composed of three different proteins. a. actin - backbone twisted into a double helix b. Tropomyosin – 2 strands surrounding the actin c. Troponin - calcium-dependent switch that acts as the control point in contraction