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A Comparison of American and Japanese Styles of Management

Masaaki Livai in Total Quality Handbook, 1990 by G. Dixon and J. Swiler

Figure 1. and upgrade standards Make employees KAIZEN-conscious through intensive training programs Help employees develop skills and tools for problem solving Supervisors Use KAIZEN in functional roles Formulate plans for KAIZEN and provide guidance to workers Improve communication with workers and sustain high morale Support small-group activities (such as quality circles) and the individual suggestion system Introduce discipline in the workshop Provide KAIZEN suggestions Workers Engage in KAIZEN through the suggestion system and smallgroup activities Practice discipline in the workshop Engage in continuous selfdevelopment to become better problem solvers Enhance skills and job-performance expertise with cross-education .6 Hierarchy of KAIZEN involvement Top Management Be determined to introduce KAIZEN as a corporate strategy Provide support and direction for KAIZEN by allocating resources Establish policy for KAIZEN and crossfunctional goals Realize KAIZEN goals through policy deployment and audits Build systems. maintain. procedures. and structure conducive to KAIZEN Middle Management and Staff Deploy and implement KAIZEN goals as directed by top management through policy deployment and cross-functional management Use KAIZEN in functional capabilities Establish.

Figure 1.1 The KAIZEN umbrella • Customer orientation • TQC (total quality control) • Robotics • QC circles • Suggestion system • Automation • Discipline in the workplace • TPM (total productive maintenance) • • • • • • Kamban Quality improvement Just-in-time Zero defects Small-group activities Cooperative labormanagement relations • Productivity improvement • New-product development .

2 Japanese perceptions of job functions (1) Top Management Middle Management Supervisors Workers Improvement Maintenance Figure 1.Figure 1.3 Japanese perceptions of job functions (2) Top Management Middle Management Supervisors Innovation KAIZEN Maintenance Workers .

4 Western perceptions of job functions Top Management Middle Management Supervisors Workers Innovation Maintenance Figure 1.5 Innovation-centered job functions Innovation Maintenance .Figure 1.

Figure 1.7 Deming Wheel Design Research Production Sales .

new theories Requires large investment but little effort to maintain it Technology Results for profits Better suited to fast-growth economy . Approach 7. Timeframe 4. Pace 3. new inventions. Mode 8. systems approach Maintenance and improvement Conventional know-how and state of the art Requires little investment but great effort to maintain it People Process and efforts for better results Works well in slow-growth economy Innovation Short-term but dramatic Big steps Intermittent and nonincremental Abrupt and volatile Select few “champions” Rugged individualism. Effect 2. Evaluation criteria 12. group efforts. Effort orientation 11.1 Features of KAIZEN and Innovation 1. Practical requirements 10. Advantage KAIZEN Long-term and long-lasting but undramatic Small steps Continuous and incremental Gradual and constant Everybody Collectivism. Change 5. Spark 9. individual ideas and efforts Scrap and rebuild Technological break-throughs.Japan West KAIZEN Strong Weak Innovation Weak Strong Figure 2. Involvement 6.

Figure 2.2 Ideal pattern from innovation Time Figure 2.3 Actual pattern from innovation Time .

Figure 2.5 Innovation plus KAIZEN KAIZEN Innovation KAIZEN Innovation Time .4 Innovation alone What should be (standard) What should be (standard) Innovation Maintenance What actually is Maintenance What actually is Time Figure 2.

Figure 2.6 Total manufacturing chain Science Technology Design Production Market Innovation KAIZEN .

Figure 2. shared Cross-functional orientation Build on existing technology Cross-functional organization Comprehensive feedback . proprietary Functional (specialist) orientation Seek new technology Line + staff Limited feedback KAIZEN Adaptability Teamwork (systems approach) Generalist-oriented Attention to details people-oriented Information: open.7 Another comparison of Innovation and KAIZEN Innovation Creativity Individualism Specialist-oriented Attention to great leaps Technology-oriented Information: closed.

Figure 2.8 Western and Japanese product perceptions Technology Level Western perceptions High technology Preferred Process Product Technologyoriented innovation Innovative product Japanese perceptions Low technology + KAIZEN Peopleoriented + KAIZEN KAIZEN-oriented product .

9 Upcoming Japanese product perceptions Technology Level Preferred Process Product High technology Technology-oriented innovation Technology-oriented innovation Technology-oriented KAIZEN Low technology Technology-oriented innovation Technology-oriented innovation .Figure 2.