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Management Styles

International Management Styles

Management Styles
• What are they?
– They are strategies, efforts, or direction used to create a more efficient and humane workplace whilst sustaining a profitable status. – All of the aforementioned while still being able to create methods to deal with individual cases, ensure smooth running, respect local culture, and be feasible. – Ideal:
“the master is available to all people and doesn‟t reject anyone…”
- Lao Tzu

Different Styles
• Many styles have been identified either as implemented and working or as Implemented and abandoned:
– Assertive, Autocratic, Coaching, Country Club, Directing, Delegating, Laissez Faire, Participatory.

The 3-Ds of Management Style. Thornton .A Simpler Approach • “I believe there are three basic styles directing. discussing and delegating.” (Thornton) – Paul B.

. • Appropriate when specific orders have been given to perform specific tasks. and define expectations. set standards.Directing • Major control in management‟s hands • Managers assign roles and responsibilities.

Directing • Communication: Precision in communication critical. Usually in the form of directions from management. • Rewards and Recognition: Management is happy when directions are followed precisely. • Monitoring Performance: Control points to monitor performance. • Goal-Setting: Short term goals set by management. • Decision Making: Management makes most decisions. .

• Managers usually facilitate and provide feedback during meetings. ask questions. listen. .Discussing • People take time to discuss relevant issues • Employees and managers can present ideas. provide feedback. challenge assumptions and coach as needed.

and contributions to discussions are recognized. • Monitoring Performance: Performance monitored by employees and managers. social skills. Gives a way for people to be heard. • Goal-Setting: Employees tend to be more committed to their goals through helping set them. • Decision Making: Everyone is involved in the decision making process.Discussing • Communication: More about people and their ideas. • Rewards and Recognition: Openness. .

” . • Appropriate when employees are trained and experienced at what they do. • Employees autonomous for the most part.Abraham Lincoln . “If there is anything that a man can do well. • Responsibility transferred from management to employee.Delegating • Expectations established by management. I say let him do it. Give him a chance.

• Monitoring Performance: Managers specify types of monitoring vehicles and require timely feedback.Delegating • Communication: Varies depending on situation. can be one way or two way. • Rewards and Recognition: Managers reward efficiency and excellence in autonomy. specific to their demands. • Decision Making: Employees make most decisions themselves. • Goal Setting: Goals may be established by managers or by employee management groups. . Managers try to avoid „reverse delegation‟.


American Management Styles •Employee Centered Approach •Management Centered Approach .

Employee Centered • The more employees are involved and recognized. . the more productive they are likely to be.

Management Centered (Top Down Approach) • Less widely used due to recurring lack of employee motivation. . • Necessary for organizations such as the military. • Quite often used in small business when management isn‟t fully aware that motivating factors largely to productivity.

Employee Centered Approach • Management by Objectives • Employee Recognition Programs • Employee Involvement or Participative Management .

Management By Objectives .

Management By Objectives • Concise statements of expected accomplishments made by management and employees .

Requirements • • • • Goal Specificity Participative Decision Making An Explicit Time Period Performance Feedback .

Examples • • • • Health Care Organizations Educational Institutions Government Offices Non-profit Organizations .

Employee Involvement Programs (Participative Management) .

.Employee Involvement Programs (Participative Management) • Subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power.

3 Major Types • Representative Participation • Quality Circles • Stock Ownership Plans .

.Representative Participation • workers are represented by a small group of employees who actually participate.

and propose solutions.Quality Circles • a group of eight to ten employees and supervisors who have a shared area of responsibility. who meet regularly to discuss quality problems. . investigate the causes of these problems.

.Stock Ownership Plans • Used to create the feeling of personal ownership which should in turn lead to employee concern with how well the company is producing.

S.The U. in the Big 3 • All three styles are used in the USA • Tendency of managers to adopt style according to requirements of business .


German Management Style 1. hands-on Production Management .Respect for Competence (no-nonsense production culture) 3. Formalized.Vocational Training (Thoroughness & Consistency) 2.

Vocational Training (Thoroughness & Consistency) • Apprentice System • German Medieval Guilds (Meister Qualification) • Technical Expertise of Managers (Technical Background) .

Apprentice System • • • • • Best vocational training system in Europe Nearly 400 Qualifications On the job training 70% industrial workers go through system & passed Viable relationship between Training & Employment System a. Trade Unions . Government b. Employers Association c.

techniques . Continuously challenged with new procedures. Leadership • Technical knowledge & engineering skills a. tools. Organizational methodology c. Production automatization & logistics b.German Medieval Guilds (Meister Qualification) • Promotes technical “workmanship” • 2/3rds of German Supervisors hold a Meister Certificate • One of the foundations of efficiency & productivity of German industry a.

Technical Expertise of Managers (Technical Background) • Known as specialists • Little belief in added value of a generally oriented management education • Professional criteria a. Managers chosen for positions base on expert knowledge . Quality of skill & amount of experience (most important) b.

Respect for Competence (no-nonsense production culture) • • • • • Workmanship Wide Span of Control Loyal Managers (Comparing to Anglo-Saxon Managers) Quality & Innovation Effective Labor Relations .

high quality • Technical & professional excellence is valued & encouraged • Enhances potential for satisfying intraorganizational relationships • Basic attitude is relatively favorable & respectful of expert knowledge .Workmanship • Highly rewarded and respected.

Wide Span of Control • • • • • If personnel highly qualified. then little need for staff personnel Avg. proportion of staff personnel in German firms less than 30% Firms have 1 layer of supervision (British/French have at least 2) Employees are relatively autonomous (in executing their work) Exercise greater job discretion .

compared to 3 in US • Managers select & train their own replacements • Implement Stellvertreter Principle (Shadowworker) .Loyal Managers (Comparing to Anglo-Saxon Managers) • Average tenure in one firm is 8 yrs.

potential successor can temporarily experience his or her future position .Stellvertreter Principle (“shadowworker”) • Managers select and train their own replacements • Enhances the continuity of decision making while promotion ploys and insecurity around “who is succeeding whom” • Overall.

Product oriented & complete on quality than price • Effective Labor Relations a. Gives employees right to elect # of non executive directors to firms mgmt board .• Quality & Innovation a. Industry-wide range bargaining w/ trade unions c. Less preoccupied with labor disputes b.

Formalized. Hands-on Production Management • Degree of Formalization • Consider job descriptions & clear cut procedures being of great importance .

Degree of Formalization • • • • • Regard to instructions. tasks. rather rely on rules & regulations Reduce uncertainties on shop floor Faithful to deadlines Production departments are more central in their organizational functioning . duties & rights Not inclined to improvise.

goal setting with understanding of the desired output in productivity and rewards with recognition by employees finding ways to get the job done from previous experiences or training • • .German Management related to Big Three Management Styles • Contain elements from Directing style by effective communication from manager to employee. accomplishing goals by deadlines and monitoring performance with feedback by maintaining control Contain elements of Discussing style by giving employees a chance to communicate their views with manager. decision-making from learning in training and monitoring performance with feedback by discussing steps to maintain or increase productivity Contain elements of Delegating style by communication with taking necessary steps in one way.


.South Africa • Since the first all race elections in 1994 South Africa has been struggling to manage its tremendous cultural diversity of its population.

this calls for a diversity when it comes to management practices. • There are three approaches to management that are prevalent in South Africa. – Eurocentric – Afrocentric – Synergistic inspirational .Management • Because they have such a diverse population.

• It is based on western value that power is given to those that show individualism and related self-centered concepts.The Eurocentric Approach • This is a more western approach to management. .

• Adversarial relationships are formed between managers and the managed. etc. whites and blacks.The Eurocentric Approach • A key point in this approach is forming an opposition. buyers and suppliers. .

• The Ubuntu value system is a key component to the concept of Afrocentricty. . • Ubuntu implies beliefs that man is part of the social fabric and that everybody needs to find out where their place is.The Afrocentric Approach • Afrocentricity is a concept that uses Africa has a home base in addressing challenges whatever the nature.

The Afrocentric Approach
• Using this approach everyone in the organization has a sense of belonging. • Management is approachable and the atmosphere is informal with a free flow of information. • The atmosphere gives a good sense of community and there are many relationships among co-workers.

The Synergistic Inspirational Approach
• Based on the acknowledgment that South Africa must understand and take advantage of its dual heritage. • They have to integrate their African practices, values and philosophies with Western management styles.

The Synergistic Inspirational Approach
• Organizations need to seek unity and diversity • Trust needs to be built and people need to have respect for different values. • People have to also be willing to open up and learn new ways of completing tasks.

South African Styles in the Big 3 • Eurocentric approach – Directing • Afrocentric approach – Discussing • Synergistic inspirational approach – Discussing .


Japanese Management Styles .

Forces Shaping Japanese Management Practices • Culture: – Collective mentality (Confucianism) – Great persistence (Zen Buddhism) – Social reciprocity – Culturally homogeneous society – Appreciation for education and learning .

) • Industrial Organization – Keiretsus .businesses connected with other firms through mutual trading ties and shareholdings • Government – Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) – primary responsibility was formulating and implementing international trade policy .(Forces cont.

General Management Practices • Organizational Structure –Unusually large number of vertical levels –Overlapping organizations –Corporate research units reporting to top management levels .

Manufacturing Systems • Just-in-time manufacturing and purchasing (JIT) • Total quality control (TQC) • Continuous improvement through the use of suggestion systems and quality circles • Research & Development – A reputation as heavy investors in R & D .

Human Resources Management • The competitive advantages of the Japanese have often been attributed to superior human resource management systems • Lifetime employment and generalist career paths • Seniority-based evaluation. promotion and compensation systems .

) • Company unions – Previous unions were anti-business – Presently a supporting link in their integrated human resource practices. • Women as temporaries and support groups – Hired as clerical staff – Expected to resign when married – Managerial training centers around support activities .(HRM cont.

prefer a more Western style of management . especially women.Future Japanese Management System • Japanese management systems are adopting Western practices • Japanese companies with Western operations and joint ventures has increased rapidly • Young professionals and managers.

structural and economic change – rapidly aging work force and a rising hourly wage • Japan‟s passion for learning and enrollment in western educational programs. and is stimulating change .) • Demographic.(Future cont. has highlighted for its managers many of the weaknesses of the present Japanese system.

Japan in the Big 3 • Japanese markets also employ all three techniques depending on type of business .

Thank You .