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Cell Structure and Function

Dr.Satish Gupta Ph.D.(Botany)

Attributes of cells
A. Plasma membrane
B. DNA C. Cytoplasm

D. Obtain energy and nutrients from their environment

Cell Size
1. 1100m

2. Why is there a limit to cell size? a. Surface-to-volume ratio b. Distance from surface to center

tallest trees

adult human

chicken egg

frog embryo most eukaryotic cells mitochondrion most bacteria

virus
proteins diameter of DNA double helix atoms

Cell types
Prokaryoticno nucleus, circular DNA, ribosomes
Eukaryoticlarger, nucleus, linear chromosomes, membranous organelles

Prokaryotic Cells

Have no membrane-bound organelles Include true bacteria On earth 3.8 million years Found nearly everywhere

Spores in each breath; intestines Naturally in soil, air, hot springs

nucleoid (DNA)

ribosomes

food granule

prokaryotic flagellum

plasma membrane
cytoplasm cell wall

Eukaryotic Cells

Have numerous internal structures

Various types & forms

Plants, animals, fungi, protists

Multicellular organisms

nuclear pore chromatin (DNA) nucleus nucleolus nuclear envelope flagellum intermediate filaments plasma membrane

rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosome lysosome

cytoplasm

microtubules smooth endoplasmic reticulum free ribosome mitochondrion vesicle

Golgi complex vesicle

microtubules (part of cytoskeleton) chloroplast

mitochondrion

Golgi complex

central vacuole

smooth endoplasmic reticulum vesicle rough endoplasmic reticulum cell wall

plasma membrane

nucleolus nucleus nuclear pore chromatin nuclear envelope ribosomes

intermediate filaments free ribosome

Eukaryotic cell structure

Nucleus is control center of the cell

1. Membrane bound (nuclear envelope) 2. Contains nucleoli; synthesizes ribosomal RNA 3. DNA in chromosomes (DNA and proteins)

nuclear envelope nucleolus nuclear pores

chromatin

nucleus

nuclear pores

chromatin

chromosome

0.05 micrometers

Eukaryotic cell structure


Organelles
Endoplasmic reticulum consists of folded membranes attached to the nucleus

Rough ER is site of protein synthesis


and protein secretion

rough endoplasmic reticulum

ribosomes

0.5 micrometers smooth endoplasmic reticulum

0.5 micrometers vesicles

Eukaryotic Cell Structure


Organelles (cont.)

Ribosomes assemble amino acid into


polypeptide chains
a. Associated with the ER b. Composed of RNA and proteins

ribosomes

rough endoplasmic reticulum 0.5 micrometers

vesicles

smooth endoplasmic reticulum 0.5 micrometers

Eukaryotic Cell Structure


Organelles
Golgi

(cont.)

apparatus are membranous sacs associated with ER a. Processing and transport of proteins, lipids b. Synthesis and transport of polysaccharides

vesicles from ER

vesicles leaving Golgi complex Golgi complex

Eukaryotic cell structure

Organelles (cont.)

Lysosomes are Golgi-derived vesicles containing digestive enzymes

vesicles from ER

vesicles leaving Golgi complex Golgi complex

Eukaryotic Cells: Organelles


Energy sources for cell activities

Mitochondria provide energy for cellular functions (respiration) a. Membrane bound, numerous
b. Matrix/cristae c. Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicate

5 micrometers

Eukaryotic Cells: Organelles


Energy sources for cell activities

Chloroplastsfunction in photosynthesis

1) Greencontain chlorophyll pigment 2) Stroma/grana (thylakoid stacks) 3) Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicate 4) Up to 100 per cell

Eukaryotic Cells: Organelles

Cytoskeleton
Internal

infrastructure

Surface structures

extensions of the plasma membrane aid in movement of simple organisms

actin subunits

subunit

tubulin subunit

Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes

Similarities & differences

Both surrounded by plasma membrane, but very different Prokaryotes Archaebacteria and Eubacteria Eukaryotes everything else

Evolution of Eukaryotic cell


Endosymbiotic Hypothesis
Similarities between bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts Self-reproducing by binary fission Size of organism and genome

Single circular naked DNA


Proportion of (G & C) to (A & T) Same sized ribosome Protein synthesis inhibited by antibiotics Enzymes for synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein Electron transport system

Plant & Animal Cells

Similarities

Both constructed from eukaryotic cells Both contain similar organelles Both surrounded by cell membrane

Plant & Animal Cells


Differences
Plants

have

Cell wall provides strength & rigidity Have chloroplasts, photosynthetic


Animals

have

Other organelle not found in plants (lysosomes formed from Golgi) Centrioles, important in cell division

Brief Look at Viruses

Viruses are acellular


Not considered to be living Cause serious diseases in most organisms