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Cell Structure and Function

Dr.Satish Gupta Ph.D.(Botany)

Attributes of cells
A. Plasma membrane
B. DNA C. Cytoplasm

D. Obtain energy and nutrients from their environment

Cell Size
1. 1100m

2. Why is there a limit to cell size? a. Surface-to-volume ratio b. Distance from surface to center

tallest trees

adult human

chicken egg

frog embryo most eukaryotic cells mitochondrion most bacteria

proteins diameter of DNA double helix atoms

Cell types
Prokaryoticno nucleus, circular DNA, ribosomes
Eukaryoticlarger, nucleus, linear chromosomes, membranous organelles

Prokaryotic Cells

Have no membrane-bound organelles Include true bacteria On earth 3.8 million years Found nearly everywhere

Spores in each breath; intestines Naturally in soil, air, hot springs

nucleoid (DNA)


food granule

prokaryotic flagellum

plasma membrane
cytoplasm cell wall

Eukaryotic Cells

Have numerous internal structures

Various types & forms

Plants, animals, fungi, protists

Multicellular organisms

nuclear pore chromatin (DNA) nucleus nucleolus nuclear envelope flagellum intermediate filaments plasma membrane

rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosome lysosome


microtubules smooth endoplasmic reticulum free ribosome mitochondrion vesicle

Golgi complex vesicle

microtubules (part of cytoskeleton) chloroplast


Golgi complex

central vacuole

smooth endoplasmic reticulum vesicle rough endoplasmic reticulum cell wall

plasma membrane

nucleolus nucleus nuclear pore chromatin nuclear envelope ribosomes

intermediate filaments free ribosome

Eukaryotic cell structure

Nucleus is control center of the cell

1. Membrane bound (nuclear envelope) 2. Contains nucleoli; synthesizes ribosomal RNA 3. DNA in chromosomes (DNA and proteins)

nuclear envelope nucleolus nuclear pores



nuclear pores



0.05 micrometers

Eukaryotic cell structure

Endoplasmic reticulum consists of folded membranes attached to the nucleus

Rough ER is site of protein synthesis

and protein secretion

rough endoplasmic reticulum


0.5 micrometers smooth endoplasmic reticulum

0.5 micrometers vesicles

Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Organelles (cont.)

Ribosomes assemble amino acid into

polypeptide chains
a. Associated with the ER b. Composed of RNA and proteins


rough endoplasmic reticulum 0.5 micrometers


smooth endoplasmic reticulum 0.5 micrometers

Eukaryotic Cell Structure



apparatus are membranous sacs associated with ER a. Processing and transport of proteins, lipids b. Synthesis and transport of polysaccharides

vesicles from ER

vesicles leaving Golgi complex Golgi complex

Eukaryotic cell structure

Organelles (cont.)

Lysosomes are Golgi-derived vesicles containing digestive enzymes

vesicles from ER

vesicles leaving Golgi complex Golgi complex

Eukaryotic Cells: Organelles

Energy sources for cell activities

Mitochondria provide energy for cellular functions (respiration) a. Membrane bound, numerous
b. Matrix/cristae c. Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicate

5 micrometers

Eukaryotic Cells: Organelles

Energy sources for cell activities

Chloroplastsfunction in photosynthesis

1) Greencontain chlorophyll pigment 2) Stroma/grana (thylakoid stacks) 3) Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicate 4) Up to 100 per cell

Eukaryotic Cells: Organelles



Surface structures

extensions of the plasma membrane aid in movement of simple organisms

actin subunits


tubulin subunit

Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes

Similarities & differences

Both surrounded by plasma membrane, but very different Prokaryotes Archaebacteria and Eubacteria Eukaryotes everything else

Evolution of Eukaryotic cell

Endosymbiotic Hypothesis
Similarities between bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts Self-reproducing by binary fission Size of organism and genome

Single circular naked DNA

Proportion of (G & C) to (A & T) Same sized ribosome Protein synthesis inhibited by antibiotics Enzymes for synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein Electron transport system

Plant & Animal Cells


Both constructed from eukaryotic cells Both contain similar organelles Both surrounded by cell membrane

Plant & Animal Cells



Cell wall provides strength & rigidity Have chloroplasts, photosynthetic



Other organelle not found in plants (lysosomes formed from Golgi) Centrioles, important in cell division

Brief Look at Viruses

Viruses are acellular

Not considered to be living Cause serious diseases in most organisms