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Team and Team work
Why Have Teams Become So Popular
Teams typically outperform individuals.
Teams use employee talents better. Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment. Teams facilitate employee involvement. Teams are an effective way to democratize an organization and increase motivation.
A team comprises a group of people linked in a common purpose. Teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are
high in complexity and have many interdependent subtasks
Problem solving team A temporary team assembled to solve a specific problem. Committee A temporary or permanent group of people assembled to act upon some matter.Types of Teams Generally fall into one of two primary groups: permanent teams and temporary teams. Quality circle (today also under various other names) A group of workers from the same functional area who meet regularly to uncover and solve work-related problems and seek work improvement opportunities. Here are some of the common types Task force A temporary team assembled to investigate a specific issue or problem. . Product design team A temporary team assembled to design a new product or service.
Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.Types of Teams (cont’d) Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. .
Types of Teams (cont’d) .
. and the work environment. efficiency. assigning tasks to members. making operating decisions. . Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.Types of Teams (cont’d) Problem-Solving Teams Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality. planning and scheduling of work.
who come together to accomplish a task.Types of Teams (cont’d) Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level. but from different work areas. .
Types of Teams (cont’d) Virtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. The three primary factors that differentiate virtual teams from faceto-face teams are: (1) The absence of preverbal and nonverbal cues (2) Limited social context (3) The ability to overcome time and space constraints .
Stages of Team Development .
The length of this stage will depend on how clearly the task is defined.Stages of Team Development Orientation (Forming) – This is simply the bringing together of a group of individuals. At this stage. . and what skills are needed. members are: • Moderately eager • Have generally positive expectations • Have some anxiety about why they are there and what it all means • Have some anxiety about other members such as who they are and what they are like During orientation. This is an important stage because it serves to clarify the team's mission and bond team members. Teams that pay attention to building the relationships as well as focusing on the task successful outcome. How to approach Goals.
some groups never emerge from this stage and. disband in frustration. Members may feel anger or frustration with the task or with other members or may even resent the presence of formal leadership. .Stages of Team Development Dissatisfaction (Storming) This stage is characterized by: • argument • conflict • a dip in morale It results from differences between initial expectations and the reality of the situation as perceived by the members. if possible. a condition that is present anytime strangers meet. Members are also beginning to confront the differences in their personalities and values. In the worst cases. however. may become stuck in this stage and continue to be both demoralized and relatively unproductive. Generally. Some groups. Members may have varying opinions of what the group was to do and how to accomplish it. the dissatisfaction stage is relatively short.
mutual respect. Members are less dissatisfied as in the previous stage because they are now learning more about each other and how they will work together. procedures. harmony. a code of conduct.Stages of Team Development Resolution (Norming) This stage in the group's development involves the: • Resolving of issues • Setting up group processes • Setting of group policies. and measurement indicators. a set of team values. The work is characterized by slowly increasing production as skills develop. They are making progress toward their goals. They are developing tools to help them work better together such as a problem solving process. The group is developing into a team. feelings of cohesion. and trust. Member attitudes are characterized by decreasing animosities toward other members. and values • Increasing production Members are now resolving differences and clarifying the mission and roles. and a feeling of pleasure in accomplishing tasks. .
and disagreement is welcome and handled without emotional conflict. Member attitudes are characterized by positive feelings and eagerness to be part of the team. enjoy open communication.Stages of Team Development Production (Performing) The team is accomplishing work effectively. this stage reflects the work being accomplished most effectively. Production is high and the climate is positive. Although work is being accomplished through all the stages. Members are confident about the outcome. exhibit high energy. .
time should be spent addressing how it should be done to properly recognize the team's accomplishments.Stages of Team Development Termination In the case of temporary teams such as task forces. and problem solving teams. When a team ends. this stage may reflect either a sense of loss or relief. a fifth stage reflects the ending of the process. design teams. . Depending on the team's success in accomplishing its task and how strongly the members have bonded.
Team Building Team building is any activity that builds and strengthens the team as a team. Spirit Enthusiasm Cohesiveness Camaraderie are vitally important. .
Task Accomplishment a. b. Team Mission and Vision The driving force and common understanding behind every team is a clear mission and vision. Team Operating Processes To accomplish tasks effectively and efficiently. good teams develop operating processes such as sequential steps Define Problem Collect Data Analyze Problem Develop Solutions Trial Implementation Full Implementation .
Disagreer . Coordinator-Integrator . Information Giver .offers beliefs or other value-based ideas 6.offers facts or other "authoritative" information 5. and group decisions to help the group identify where it is in its thinking 8.seeks clarification of issues in terms of their factual adequacy 3. Energizer . argues against. Opinion Giver .keeps a written record of the groups work . Orienter . and people 9. Summarizer .spells out suggestions in terms of examples or developed meanings 7.takes a different point of view." or the "procedure" 12. and implies error in fact or reasoning 11. Recorder . Elaborator . Questions the "practicality.subjects the accomplishment of the group to some set of standards. Team Task Roles 1.seeks clarification of the values pertinent to the issue.pulls together ideas.prods the group to action 13.clarifies and integrates relationships between various ideas. Opinion Seeker .performs routine tasks related to group functioning 14.suggests new ideas to the group 2. Information Seeker . rather than facts 4. suggestions. Procedural Technician . concepts." the "facts.defines the position of the group with respect to its goals 10. Initiator . Evaluator-Critic ." the "logic.Task Accomplishment c.
Example. Team operating principles Team members discuss how they will behave with each other.Team Building a. then formalize their results in a set of standards or a code of conduct . one team's code of conduct included the following: • Respect the opinions of others • Allow equal participation in discussions • Take responsibility for what is going on in the team. . Team Values • Understand that each team member brings a unique value system to the table. and take action when needed. • Their differences are frequently the source of conflict. b. • Understanding how values affect team member relationships is a critical piece of the team building.
particularly in meetings. Gatekeeper -regulates the flow of communication.Team Building c.expresses standards for the team regarding its operation 6. by encouraging the participation of those less inclined to participate and quieting those who are overly talkative 5. Group Observer . The Six Team Building Roles 1. Encourager . Standard Setter .observes and reports back to the team on its group dynamics . Harmonizer .offers a compromise during disagreement or conflict by yielding position or admitting error 4.mediates differences between other members 3.praises other members' contributions to the team 2. Compromiser .
Cultural Change .Communication IX. Context – Background – Why participation in Teams? III.Twelve Tips for Team Building I. Coordination XII. Collaboration – Team work VIII. Competence – Capability – Knowledge V. Consequences – Accountable for rewards XI. Control – Freedom & Limitations VII. Commitment – dedication – Service as valuable to Organization & Own IV. Creative Innovation X. Charter – agreement – Assigned area of responsibility VI. Clear Expectations – Vision/Mission II.
Don't Demonstrate Provide Constructive Criticism Try To Be Positive Value Your Group's Ideas .Team Member Communicate Don't Blame Others Support Group Member's Ideas No Bragging – No Full of yourself Listen Actively Get Involved Coach.
Team Member .
Team Member .
Team Member .
Team Member .
Communication A leader takes charge – Implementation & Controlling A leader inspires through example Team Learning Systems Thinking -shape the behavior of systems. Decisional Keys to Leader ship A leader plans .Leader ship A simple definition of leadership is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal.Planning A leader has a Vision – Goal setting A leader shares her vision . Organizational 2. . Three basic functions that a leader performs: 1. Interpersonal 3.
Kindness 5. Desire to Serve Others 3. 14.Characteristics Of Leadership 1. Empowering People 4. Leaders pull rather than push. Leaders work through teams and not through hierarchies. Recognize their shortcomings 6. Lead with Purpose "They lead with purpose. Clear Where They Stand "Others follow them because they know where they stand. Leaders have a good grasp of self . Guided by Heart. 2. passion and compassion – Enthusiasiun. Refuse to Compromise "When principles are tested. Authenticity ." 9." 7. Leaders possess a strong doss of self-esteem and positive attitude. 15.Leadership begins and ends with genuineness/faithfullness. Eagerness. Develop Themselves 11. 13. 12. Build Enduring Relationships "They build enduring relationships with people." 8. they refuse to compromise. Leaders have a clear vision and communicate that vision." 10. meaning and values.
Social loafing 3. Process losses 2.Creating Effective Teams Main problems: 1. Groupthink Performance Group Size .
Group Decision Making • • • • • • • • Symptoms Illusion of invulnerability Assumption of morality Rationalization Stereotyping of outgroups Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Mindguarding Pressuring of dissenters .