Session # 48

Security on Your Campus: How to Protect Privacy Information Robert Ingwalson

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We Implement Security Based on Cost vs. Risk

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Protecting personal information is Everybody’s Job!
Personally Identifiable Information (PII): Information about an individual including but not limited to, Education, Employment, Financial Transactions, Medical History, and Criminal Background information which can be used to distinguish or trace and individual’s identity, such as their name, social security number, date and place of birth, mother’s maiden name, biometric records, etc, including any other personal information that can be linked to an individual.

Don’t become a headline!

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • In the Office • On the System • Data Transfers • Remote Users • Assess Your Security

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • In the Office
– Document handling and storage – Phones and Faxes – Land Shipments – Physical Office Security – Personnel Security – Policy and Training

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • In the Office
– Document Handling and Storage
• Limit printing of PII • Clean Desk • Sensitivity Identification • Shredding • Monitoring • Secure storage

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • In the Office
– Phones
• Limit PII conversations • Don’t leave PII voicemails • Prevent listeners

– Faxes
• Limit faxing of PII • Confirm fax number • Two way communication before sending and upon receipt • Monitor the Fax • Safeguard document

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • In the Office
– Land Shipments
• Limit shipments of PII • Encrypt sent media • Double package • Send by reputable shipping agent • Include a manifest inside the package. • Communicate shipment with receiver 9

Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • In the Office
– Physical Office Security
• Staffed reception counter • After hours?
– Card/key access – Change combinations & keys – Logs

• Added Security
– Cameras – Entry and exit checks

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • In the Office
– Personnel Security
– Challenge others

• Know who should be there • Personnel background checks
– Criminal – Employment history – Credit

• Train shortly after employment begins and then refresh periodically

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • In the Office
– Personnel Security
– Challenge others

• Know who should be there • Personnel background checks
– Criminal – Employment history – Credit

• Train shortly after employment begins and then refresh periodically

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • In the Office
– Policy and Training
• Policy provides basis for controls and a roadmap to follow • Based on requirements and good practice • Individuals need training on policy Include in Personnel training

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • On the System
Depth) (Defense in

– Policy – Personnel Security – Physical Security – Network Security – Host based Security – Application Security

www.macroview.com/solutions/infosecurity/

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • On the System
– Policy
• Technical, Managerial, Operational control requirements • Tells what needs to be done, not how – Procedures provide the road maps on how to comply with policy • Covers all other aspects of Security – Personnel – Physical – Network Security – Host based Security – Application Security 15

Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • On the System
– Personnel Security
• The same as in the office:
– Know who should be there » Challenge others – Personnel background checks » Criminal » Employment History » Credit – Train shortly after employment begins and then refresh periodically

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • On the System
– Physical Security

• Includes environmental Security • Access control

• Backup power • Cameras

– Badges / Keycards – Access lists and entry logs – Escorted access – Higher level of control for some areas – Metal detectors and scanners

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • On the System
– Network Security
• Firewalls • NIDs (Network Intrusion Detection) • Auditing • IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) • Honeypots

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • On the System
– Host based Security
• Configuration compliance • Internal Firewalls • Access control • HIDs (Host Based Intrusion Detection) • Anti-Virus and Anti-Spyware • Patch management • Logging

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • On the System
– Application Security
• Develop Application Security Plan • Test for known vulnerabilities prior to implementation • Authorize access • Rules of behavior • Secure Web interface • Limit PII entries and displays

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • Data Transfers
– Electronic File Transfers – Tapes and CDs – Thumb Drives – Email – *Laptops

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • Data Transfers
– Encryption
• Encrypt with strong Algorithms
– AES, Advance Encryption Standard or Triple DES, Data Encryption Standard – Use large key length, 256 or greater – If passwords are used: make them strong » Complex with a mixture of numbers, upper and lower alpha characters, and special characters » 8-12 characters in length » No dictionary words or names » Send separate from the data transfer » Mask entry

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • Remote Users
– Two types of remote users: Students and Staff – Problem
• • • • • • • • • Work from personal or public PCs and laptops Data downloads need to be monitored Infected with viruses and spyware Open to phishing and pharming *Subject to Keylogger attacks Limit PII displayed or entered on the screen Employ two factor authentication for application access Provide Web site notices Offer assistance

– Resolution

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • Remote Users
– Keylogger attacks • What are Keyloggers? • Why are we singling this threat out? • What can be done about the Keylogger threat?
– Limit the amount of PII entered or displayed on the web site. – – – – Make sure that user passwords are changed frequently. Limit privileged users remote access. Use Two Factor authentication. Include warning banners on your web sites that provide a warning and instructions for prevention. – Let users know not to use computers with unknown security. Cyber Cafes and other publicly accessible computers should be avoided when accessing PII.

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Protecting Personally Identifiable Information • Assess Your Security
– Identify data sensitivities for CIA – Identify Likelihood • Likelihood = threat*motivation – Identify security risks • Risk level = Impact*Likelihood – Controls = level of risk – Identify test methods based on risk level • Documentation reviews • Interviews • Observations • Technical tests (network, OS and application scans, log reviews, penetration testing, password cracking) – Use Baseline Security Requirements – Complete testing and identify weaknesses / unmitigated vulnerabilities – Create remediation plan

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Protecting personal information is Everybody’s Job!
Personally Identifiable Information (PII): Information about an individual including but not limited to, Education, Employment, Financial Transactions, Medical History, and Criminal Background information which can be used to distinguish or trace and individual’s identity, such as their name, social security number, date and place of birth, mother’s maiden name, biometric records, etc, including any other personal information that can be linked to an individual.

Don’t become a headline!

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Resources
Vulnerabilities:
– – – – OWASP (http://www.owasp.org) SANS Top 20 (www.sans.org/top20) National Vulnerability Database (http://nvd.nist.gov) cgisecurity (http//www.cgisecurity.com)

Guidance:

– National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Computer Security Resource Center (

http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/) – Center for Internet Security (CIS) (http://www.cisecurity.org/ )

– Educause

(http://connect.educause.edu/term_view/Cybersecurity)

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Contact Information
We appreciate your feedback and comments. We can be reached at:
Bob Ingwalson • Phone: 202.377.3563 • Email: robert.ingwalson@ed.gov • Fax: 202.275.0907

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