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Identifying opportunities to improve the efficiency of power transmission through existing Overhead Power Lines Konstantinos Kopsidas

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Structure of the Presentation


Basics of Ampacity & Sag Holistic Computational Methodology for Rating an OHL Analysis/Comparison of AAAC & ACSR Conductors on an 33kV OHL system Advanced conductors on the 33kV system Conclusions - The Way Forward

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Basics of Ampacity & Sag


Ampacity = The amount of current a conductor can carry without exceeding a specified temperature
i
i

R R
heat heat

Increase Increase in in conductor conductor temperature temperature

IMAX is defined by the max conductor temperature or the max conductor elongation set by the operator
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Basics of Ampacity & Sag

Tension MCT

SPAN

Plastic elongation

Sag

Increase tension Sag at max Sag at max electrical electrical loading loading

Conductor initial length Conductor initial length Conductor initial length Minimum clearance to ground

Sag at max mechanical loading

Plastic Plastic elongation Elastic elongation Elastic Thermal elongation Sag afterelongation re-tensioning Elastic elongation the conductor elongation

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Computational Methodology
OHL Data Weather Data Conductor Data Operational Data

Maximum conductor tension (MCT)


At specified Load

Newton-Raphson iteration of Change of State Equation Conductor RAC at TOPERATING & SYSTEM IEEE 738 Std
(Current-Temperature Calculation)

Conductor Tension & Sag


At TOPERATING (oC)

Mechanical computation

Electrical computation Conductor Creep


(IEEE Std) (Creep-Strain Curves)

Ageing computation Conductor Ampacity Conductor Tension & Sag with Creep

Final System Conditions

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Mechanical Computations
OHL Data Weather VIBRATION LIMIT Conductor Data Data Initial condition: Load case EDT at specified (1 - 6) Temperature Operational CONDUCTOR Data LIMIT
STRUCTURE LIMIT

Load case (1 - 6)

Load case (1 - 6) Insulator or fitting

Maximum conductor tension (MCT)


At specified Load

Final condition: specified by load case

Conductor

Newton-RaphsonChange of State equation iteration of RBS iterationInsulator Maximum Working Tension using Change ofAbsolute Conductor Working Tension ACWT= State Equation SF Newton-Raphson Conductor RAC Conductor Tension & Sag at TOPERATING & SYSTEM VLMWT At TOPERATING (oC) at the specified load case Mechanical computation IEEE 738 Std

IMWT=

RBS SF

NO

ACWT IMWT
YES

(Current-Temperature Calculation) Vibration Limited Maximum Working Tension Electrical computation

AMWT=ACWT
(IEEE Std)

AMWT=IMWT

EXAMPLE OF LOAD CASE WIND: 380N/m2 ICE: 9.5mm & 913kg/m3


NO

VLMWT AMWT

AMWT Conductor Creep

YES

Absolute Maximum Working Tension


(Strain-Strain Curves)

Ageing computation

MCT = VLMWT MCT = AMWT Conductor Ampacity Final System Conditions

MCT

At specified Load Case (1-6)

Conductor Tension & Sag with Creep

BS EN 50423 BS EN 50341 BS EN 50182

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Electrical Computations
OHL Weather Electrical + physical Conductor Electrical + physical Data properties of Data Data properties of Steel core Aluminium tube Aluminium Steel 0 RDC at 20 C RDC at 200C

Operational Data

ASTM method

Maximum conductor tension (MCT) Spiralling factor


At specified Load

Spiralling factor RDC at TOPoC

considers steel core


RDC = RST || RAL BS method Neglects steel core in the table F.42 of standards
Conductor Creep
(IEEE Std) (Creep-Strain Curves) (Strain-Strain

RDC at TOPoC

Newton-Raphson iteration of Change of State Equation RDC = (RST||RAL) at TOPoC Conductor RAC Conductor Tension & Skin factor Sag at TOPERATING & SYSTEM o
Odd layer conductor YES Mechanical computation
At TOPERATING (oC)

IEEE 738 Std Magnetisation factor Electrical computation RAC at TOPoC


(Current-Temperature Calculation)

NO

Calculation of Ampacity (IEEE Std 738) ICALCULATEDIESTIMATED

NO

RDC = RAL

Ageing computation
YES

Final System Conditions


RAC + Ampacity at TOPoC

Conductor Ampacity

Conductor Tension & Sag with Creep

BS EN 50182 ASTM B232

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Ageing Computations
Conductor Data Operational OHL Data Data
Weather Data Conductor Data
Stress 75% RBS

(a) Creep-Strain curve


Final conductor modulus of elasticity

Operational Data

Maximum conductor tension (MCT)


At specified Load
20% RBS

Initial creep line


strand settlement & deformation D A C

Final after high load creep line (75%RBS)

Newton-Raphson iteration of Change of State Equation

10-year creep line

Conductor RAC at TOPERATING & SYSTEM IEEE 738 Std


(Current-Temperature Calculation)

Conductor Tension & Sag


At TOPERATING (oC)

Conductor RAC at TOPERATING & SYSTEM IEEE 738 Std


(Current-Temperature Calculation)

10-year plastic elongation at 20%RBS

% elongation

Mechanical computation

Electrical computation Conductor Creep


(IEEE Std) (Strain-Strain Curves)

Electrical computation

(b) Predictor Equations IEEE 1283


Conductor Creep
(IEEE Std) (Creep-Strain Curves)

Ageing computation Conductor Ampacity Conductor Tension & Sag withFinal System Conditions Creep
Conductor Ampacity

Ageing computation Conductor Tension & Sag with Creep

Tension

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33kV Wood Pole Structure Analysis


1.2m 1.2m 0.45m
110m SMAX =5.7m 0.45m

10.05m

Minimum clearance =5.2m

ENA TS 43-40 ENA TS 43-90 BS 3288

BS 1990-1 BS EN 62219 BS EN 50423

1.8m

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1.8m

10.05m

Different Conductor Technologies


AAAC SOFT ACSR

HARD ACSR

Aluminium alloy equivalent properties to 1350-H19 Pure aluminium in between Alumina Fibers

ACCR (3M)

ACCC/TW (CTC)
O temper Aluminum E-glass Fibers Carbon Fibers

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AAAC Performance
4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5
400

14PTPPPpppZones of sag for AAAC At Max Electrical + Mechanical Loading MCT (-5.6C) Tmax (70C)
800

WEAK CONDUCTOR ZONE

EVERY DAY TENSION ZONE

WEAK OHL ZONE

700

600

2.0
300

1.5

Minimum point
1.0 0.5 0.0 0 5 10

200

Sag is driven by conductor strength

Sag is driven by conductor self damping vibration limit


Conductor diameter (mm)

Sag is driven by OHL structure strength


20 25 30

100

Conductor diameter (mm)

15

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Ampacity (A)

500

Sag (m)

Analysis of AAAC
Conductor Sag
1 Conductor strength

Conductor sag Conductor Resultant Weight Minimum point

1 OHL strength

Conductor Diameter

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AAAC Performance at different TMAX


4.0

14pppt At different Max Operating Temperatures

3.5
90C 80C 70C 60C 50C 40C

3.0

Sag (m)

2.5

2.0
-5.6C

1.5

1.0

WEAK CONDUCTOR ZONE


0 5 10

EVERY DAY TENSION ZONE


15 20

WEAK OHL ZONE


25 30

0.5

Conductor Diameter (mm)

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AAAC Performance
SAG plots for Copper, AAAC, and ACSR conductors 1000
90C

900 800 700


80C

70C

Ampacity (A)

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 5 10


40C 50C 60C

Conductor Diameter (mm)

15

20

25

30

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Comparison of AAAC & ACSR

Conductor Sag
Increase of Total conductor weight effect Increase in strength of material effect

Steel conductor Aluminium conductor

Minimum point shift

Conductor Diameter

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Comparison of AAAC & ACSR


SAG plots for Copper, AAAC, and ACSR conductors 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0
AAAC soft ACSR hard ACSR At -5.6oC

Sag (m)

2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 5 10 15

Conductor diameter (mm)

M Minimum point ini m um po int 20

Mi

nim

um

po

25

30

int

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Comparison of AAAC & ACSR


Creep is included in the calculations
4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0
AAAC soft ACSR hard ACSR At -5.6oC At 70oC

Sag (m)

2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 5 10 15 20 25 30

Conductor diameter (mm)

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Comparison of AAAC & ACSR


pp 14pt 800 700 0.5 600
Ampacity at 70C (A)

70C

0.6

0.4 500 400 300 0.2 200


At -5.6oC At 70oC

0.3

100 0 5 10 15 20

AAAC soft ACSR hard ACSR

0.1

0 25 30

Conductor diameter (mm)

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IR Losses (% of rated power)

Advanced Composite Conductors


SAG plots for Copper, AAAC, and ACSR conductors 4.0
AAAC ACCR ACCC/TW

Including 10 Year Creep Creep is not considered

At -5.6 C

At 70 C

3.5

3M CTC

3.0

Sag (m)

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5 15 20

Conductor diameter (mm)

25

30

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Advanced Composite Conductors


pp 14pt 800 700 600
AAAC ACCR ACCC/TW Ampacity I2R Losses

70C
3M CTC

0.6

0.5

0.4 500 400 300 0.2 200 0.1 100 0 15 20 25 30 0 0.3

Conductor diameter (mm)

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IR Losses (% of rated power)

Ampacity at 70C (A)

Conclusions
The methodology can be applied in any type & size of conductor including system design limitations & weather. AAAC are more suitable than the ACSR for the 33kV typical wood pole system. ACCC/TW develop less sag allowing uprating of the structure to 66kV.
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What is Next
Performance Analysis of a real system Any real system?

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