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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR an Overview

ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR - Course Content- 100 marks

1.

Introduction to O.B.: Origin, Nature and Scope of Organizational Behaviour

and its relevance to Organizational Effectiveness and contemporary issues

2.

Personality:

Meaning and determinants of Personality; process of Personality formation; Personality Types;Assessment of Personality Traits for increasing Self-Awareness

3.

Perception:

Attitude and Value, Perceptual Processes, Effect of perception on Individual decision-making, Attitude and Behaviour. Sources

of Value, Effect of Values on Attitudes and Behaviour,Effects


of Perception, Attitude and Values on Work Performance

4.

Motivation Concepts: Motives, Theories of Motivation and their applications for behavioural Change

5. Group Behaviour : Work groups, formal and informal groups and stages of & Group Dynamics group development: Concepts of Group Dynamics, group conflicts and group decision-making. Team Effectiveness: High Performing Teams, Team Roles, Cross-functional and self-directed Teams 6. Organizational Design: Structure, size, technology, environment of Organizations: Organizational Roles: concept of Roles; role dynamics, role Conflicts and stress and organizational conflicts

7.

7. Leadership:

Concepts and skills of Leadership; Leadership and Managerial roles, Leadership styles and effectiveness; contemporary issues of leadership. Power and Politics; sources and uses of Power; politics at workplace; tactics and strategies

Reference Texts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Understanding Organizational Behaviour- Udai Pareek Organizational Behaviour- Stephen Robbins Organizational Behaviour- Fred Luthans Organizational Behaviour- Newstrom Organizational Behaviour- Uma Sekaran

Organisational Behaviour
Definition-O.B. is a systematic study of the actions and reactions of individuals,groups and subsystems PEOPLE-consist of individual employees, dyads, groups and teams who have to get the work done as well as those outside the organization like customers and government officials

Organisational Behaviour
JOBS AND TASKSJOB- is the sum total of an individuals assignment at the workplace TASKS-are the various activities that need to be performed to get the job done.

TECHNOLOGY-is the mechanism through which the raw input is converted into finished products STRUCTURE-refers to how the workplace in terms of job positions is 7
PROCESS- is the way things get done

Organisational Behaviour
Job Requirements, Group, Behaviour and Outcomes
Requirements of Jobs
Tasks Activities Division of Labour Coordination of Activities

Formal Group

Informal Group

Psychological Group

Required Behaviour -Activities -Interaction

Emergent Behaviour -Activities -Interactions -Sentiments Outcomes

We Feeling -Psychological awareness and identification with group - Performance - Productivity - Satisfaction of organisational members

Group Processes - Norms - Cohesion etc.

Difference between Work Groups and Teams


Aspects Purpose Work products Process Leadership Meetings Accountability Evaluation Work groups Same as orgn. Individual Discuss,decide,del A single leader Efficient Individual Indirect Teams Specific Collective Discuss,decide,do Shared Open,problem sol Individual,mutual Direct(collective work products)

Managers and their Internal and External Environments


External Environment Market Labour Market

Internal Environment
Cultural
PEOPLE Individuals Dyads Groups

Economic

EE Govt.
STRUCTURE Roles Position Hierarchy MANAGERS & Managerial Processes
JOBS Tasks Activities

Political

Technological External

Internal

TECHNOLOGY Machines & other Mechanisms

Social

Environment Environment

Types of Groups
Formal- hierarchical Informal-interest groups or cliques-horizontal, vertical or random Virtual Groups- facilitated through I. T. (a) Information Sharing (b) Decision Making (c ) Solving Complex Problems Psychological Group-we feeling, sensitivity, affinity, understanding of individual strengths and personalities, sense of belonging and loyalty Other types of Groups 1. (a)Interacting- assembly-line (b) Co-acting- work independently (c ) Counter-acting- union/ management 2. (a)Open-Matrix (b) Closed- Fixed Roles 3. (a)Membership- belongs Referent-Would like to belong 4. (a)In and Out groups- Gang Wars, rivalry, competition,politics

Virtual Organization
Brazil Raw Materials USA Marketing

Singapore Core Group 5exes.& 5 staff

Japan Manufacturing

India I.T. Support

Rs.100 Cr. Turnover Possible through I.T. Linkages

Organizational Behaviour- GROUP System- an orderly group of logically related facts, principles, beliefs etc an orderly method, plan or procedure A group or arrangement of parts, facts, phenomena that relate to or interact with each other in such a way as to form a whole Definition of Organizational Behaviour O. B is an interdisciplinary behavioural science studying phenomena and dynamics( processes) of organizations and their various human units. Stages of Small Group Development FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING ADJOURNING

Stages in Group Development- Summary


Knowledge Is Hidden Trust Forming Unknown Knowledge Creation Performing Synergies

Distrust Storming

Collaborat Norming

Knowledge Hoarding

Knowledge Sharing

DIFFERENT ROLES PLAYED BY GROUP MEMBERS As per BELBIN-1981 1. Chairman/ Coordinator 2. Shaper 3. Plant 4. Monitor/ Evaluator 5. Company Worker 6. Resource Investigator 7. Team Worker 8. Completor/Finisher As per Margerison&McCann1990 1. Creator-initiates creative ideas 2. Promoter-champions ideas after they are initiated 3. Assessor- offers insightful analysis of options 4. Organizer- provides structure 5. Producer-provides direction and follow-through 6. Controller-examines details and enforces rules 7. Maintainer-fights external battles 8. Advisor-encourages the search for more information

Leadership Role & Functions

Achieving the Task Task Needs

Building and Maintaining the Team

Team Individual Needs Needs

Developing the Individual

Model of Team-Building

Stage Theme Task Outcome Relationship Outcome One Awareness Commitment Acceptance Two Conflict Clarification Belonging Three Cooperation Involvement Support Four Productivity Achievement Pride Five Separation Recognition Satisfaction n.b. The above is similar to the stages of forming,storming,norming performing and adjourning. Effective teams take time to build in an organization and comprise three steps viz. (a) Team Development (b) Team Roles (c) Team Effectiveness

Differences between Work Groups and Teams


S. No.
1.

Aspect
Roles& Respon.

Work Groups
Set of behaviours

Teams
Understands roles

2.
3.

Identity
Cohesion

No identity
me feeling

Norms & values


we feeling

4
5.

Communication
Flexibility

self-centered
rigid

member-centered
flexible

6.
7.

Morale
Idea generation

Maybe
Old ways

Enthusiasm/pride
New/creative ways

Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams


Work Groups Work Teams

Share information Neutral(s.t.negative) Individual Random and varied

Goal Synergy Accountability Skills

Collective Performance Positive Individual and mutual Complementary

TYPES OF TEAMS

techno

Problem-solving Self-managed

Cross-functional

Virtual

Characteristics of Effective Work Teams


1. Commitment and inspiring goals 2. Role Clarity 3. Self- disclosure (incl.confrontation) 4. Openness to feedback 5. Competence 6. Creativity with constructive confrontation 7. Collaboration /Support/Trust 8. Congruence between individual and group goals 9. Supportive leadership 10. Management of power Team Empowerment Team Functioning a)Cohesion- amongst team members a)Clarity of Roles b)Autonomy b)Confrontation-solving problems c)Resources provn. c)Collaboration-working together d)Accountable-goals

TEAM EFFECTIVENESS MODEL


Context Work Design -Adequate resources -Autonomy -Leadership and structure -Skill variety -Climate of trust -Task identity -Performance evaluation & -Task significance reward systems TEAM EFFECTIVENESS Composition -Abilities of members -Personality -Allocating roles -Diversity -Size of teams -Member flexibility Process -Common purpose -Specific goals -Team efficacy -Conflict levels -Social loafing

Basic Definitions connected with O.B.


Organization: An organization has four essential elements (a) Group of people (b) Interacting with each other (c )In a structured manner (d) Towards a common objective Management: Implies getting things done through and with people Manager: He is the dynamic, life-giving element in every organization. And it is the quality and performance of its managers which is the only effective advantage an enterprise in a competitive economy can have and particularly in a business enterprise.

Basic Definitions (contd..)


Three elements stand out in a manager- competence, integrity and performance Who is a manager? The CEO or the middle manager or the supervisor? A managers decision-making,action and behaviour are all geared towards Economic Performance.The objective of a business enterprise could be Survival, Profit and /or Growth ? Peter Drucker feels otherwise-creating a customer.

Basic Definitions connected with O.B. The Manager has the following responsibilities: 1. Managing Managers 2. Managing Worker and Work 3. Managing a Business 4. Managing Time A Manager has to manage Resources- 5 Ms- Money, Materials, Machines, Methods and Man. One of these resources is different from the others. Which one and why? What about Time as a resource? A manager also performs the following functions: Planning, Organizing.Staffing, Directing and Controlling or Leading,Planning,Organizing and Controlling Planning determines what results the organization will achieve Organizing- specifies how it will achieve the results Controlling determines whether the results will be achieved Leading- through planning, organizing and controlling managers exercise leadership

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR To provide an understanding of what goes on at the workplace. Four aspects need to be explained viz. Definition, goals,forces and O.B.s major characteristics 1. O.B. is the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people- as individuals and as members of groups act within organizations.It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively. 2. O.B. provides managers with the tools to: (a) to understand the behaviour of individuals (b) to understand the complexities of inter-personal relations (c )to examine the dynamics of relationships within small groups both formal teams and informal groups (d) organizations can be viewed as whole systems that have interorganizational relationships

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR GOALS:Most sciences share four goals-to describe, understand,predict and control some phenomena. O.B. has the following goals 1.Describe, systematically, how people behave under a variety of circumstances 2.Understand why people behave as they do. 3.Predicting future employee behaviour 4.Control at least partially, and develop some human activity at work Managers can utilize the tool of O.B.to influence human behaviour.skill development, team effort and productivity FORCES: There are a wide array of issues and trends that affect the nature of organizations today. They can be classified under four areas PEOPLE, STRUCTURE, TECHNOLOGY and the ENVIRONMENT

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Key forces affecting Organizational Behavior


People Individuals Groups Environment Government Competition Societal pressure Structure Jobs Relationships

Organizational Behavior

Technology Machinery Computer hardware&software

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2. 3.

4.

5.

O. B. Definitions O.B. is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals , groups and structures have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organizations effectiveness. O.B. can be defined as the systematic study of the actions and reactions of individuals, groups and sub-systems. O.B. is the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, patterns of structure in order to to help improve organizational performance and effectiveness. O.B. is one of the most complex and perhaps least understood academic elements of modern general management, but since it concerns the behaviour of people within organizations it is also one of the most central- its concern with individual and group patterns of behaviour makes it an essential element in dealing with the complex behavioural issues thrown up in the modern business world. O.B. is an inter-disciplinary behaviour science studying phenomena and dynamics(processes) of organizations and their various units.

Bases of Organizational Behaviour

1.Psychology: The science or study of individual human behaviour 2. Sociology: The study of group human behaviour 3. Social Psychology:Studies influences of people on one another 4. Anthropology:Study of the human race, and culture 5. Political Science:Behaviour of individuals in political env.

Toward an OB Discipline

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Personality affects workplace behaviour. Persons need to be placed in jobs which match their SKILLS, ABILITIES and TEMPERAMENT or PERSONALITY. Personality is that dynamic organization within the individual, of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment. Besides a study of personality is helpful in ensuring effective job performance. Personality of an individual represents personal characteristics and traits which can lead to consistent patterns of behaviour. Personality comes from the Latin word per sona which means to speak through- the role a person is playing in public. A comprehensive definition of Personality is given by Salvatore MaddiPersonality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour( thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be understood as a sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment.

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR From the above definition the following points arise: 1) Describes all behaviour at all times 2) Some behaviours are common while others are unique 3) Thus managing people becomes all the more challenging 4) Personality is stable and has continuity in time 5) But an individuals personality can undergo change in time SELF CONCEPT
Self concept is when people try to understand themselves because personality would essentially mean: (a) How people affect others (b) How they understand and see others (c) What is the pattern of their inner and outer measurable traits (d) What is the person-situation interaction Self is very relevant to the concepts of self efficacy and self-esteem Self Esteem is based on ones perceived competence and self image Self Efficacy is concerned with how well a person can cope with situations as they arise. In other words, self esteem is a generalized trait whereas self-efficacy is situation specific.

THEORIES ON PERSONALITY

1. Type Theories
2. Trait Factor Theory

3. Psychoanalytic Theory
4. Socio-psychological Theory

5. Self Theory

PERSONALITY
Cattell is also credited with having developed the 16 PF test which is used to assess personality. At first personality and behaviour were identified by 5000 words from the dictionary which was then reduced to 200 words and finally to 16 factors.

Cattells 16PF ProfileFACTOR DESCRIPTORS A-Warmth Reserved/ Outgoing B-Reasoning Less Intelligent/ More Intelligent C-Emotional Stability Affected by feelings/ Emotionally stable E- Dominance Humble/ Assertive F-Liveliness Sober/Happy-go-lucky G-Rule Consciousness Expedient/Conscientious H-Social Boldness Shy/ Venturesome I-Sensitivity Tough-minded/Tender-minded L-Vigilance Trusting/ Suspicious M-Abstractedness Practical/ Imaginative N-Privateness Straightforwardness/ Shrewd O-Apprehension Self-Assured/ Apprehensive Q1-Openness to Change Conservative/ Experimenting Q2-Self-Reliance Group-dependent/ Self-sufficient Q3-Perfectionism Self-confident/ Self-control Q4-Tension Relaxed/ Tense

There are 5 Super Traits which are1. Extroversion( sociable, assertive ) 2. Emotionality ( anxious, insecure) 3. Agreeableness ( conforming, helpful to others) 4. Conscientiousness ( persistent, organized ) 5. Intellect ( curious, open to experience )

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
APPROACH
Confrontation Compromise

AVOIDANCE
Resignation Appeasement

Arbitration Negotiation

Withdrawal Diffusion

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
AVOIDANCE Resignation Appeasement (a) Fatalistic Concessions with (b) Ignore hope of resolution Withdrawal (a)No opportunity to fight (b)Physical separation (c )Define boundaries (d) Actually withdraw Diffusion (a) Time (b) Good sense (c ) Buffer

APPROACH Confrontation- win-lose trap e.g. Strike and Lockout Arbitration- third party intervention e.g. award or formula Compromise- give and tak e.g. adjustment Negotiation- bargaining e.g. demands and Counter-demands and reaching a settlement