SAMPLING

9/29/2012

Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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SAMPLING

How would you know if the rice is properly cooked ? How would you know that the bunch of grapes is good just by testing 1 or 2 grapes ? This is SAMPLING in day to day life.

So….What is Sampling according

to you ???

9/29/2012

Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Meaning…

A Sample is a part of the population which is studied in order to make inferences about the whole population. Research needs the data to be collected from the concerned people. If you collect the data from all the concerned people you would be spending a lot on all the resources… human, money, time, energy etc. So choose only a FEW . But how to choose these FEW is the main concern of the researcher.
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  

The RIGHT people , objects The ADEQUATE number PROPER method of selection

must be followed if you want to make your research more meaningful & valid.

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Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Some Terms Defined…
 SAMPLING TRAIT: Characteristics used for selection.  POPULATION : Entire group of people or objects of interest.      ELEMENT : A single member of the population. POPULATION : A list of all the elements in the FRAME population from which sample is drawn. SAMPLE : A subset of the population. SUBJECT : A single member of the sample. SAMPLE SIZE : Total no. of subjects in the sample.

9/29/2012

Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Relation between Sample & Population

SAMPLE

POPULATION

Statistics Mean, S.D., Variance

Estimate

Parameters Mean, S.D., Variance

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Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Why Sampling ???
To save on resources. To reduce the errors. To increase accuracy & precision. To decrease data obsoleteness. To avoid wastage of population . (Destructive Sampling ….while testing for quality you consume the entire population)
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The objective of sampling is to draw accurate inferences about the universe or the population parameters ( which are unknown ) from the unit sample statistic ( which is known … observed & measured ) . This helps the researcher to generalise about the results .

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Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Advantages of Sampling…

Smaller no. is handled Increases accuracy of data Ensures greater response rate Easy supervision Ensures greater co operation from sample Helps researcher go systematically Resources efficiently utilized
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Principles of Sampling…

Sampling units must be ---

chosen in a systemic & objective manner clearly defined & easily identifiable units must be independent of each other used throughout the study true representative of the population

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Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Sample Design
Sample design is a systematic plan for obtaining a sample from the given population. WHY Sample design…? To ensure precision & objectivity in sampling . To reduce sampling error.

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Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Steps

of

Sample

Design

 Finalize parameters of interest

 Define type of the universe  Decide the sampling unit or unit of analysis (house, person, object)  Prepare the sampling frame (List)  Decide sample size  Finalise budget  Finalise sampling procedure (type & method)
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Good Sample Design

 Truly representative

 Smaller sampling error
 Unbiased  Within budgetary provisions  Results generalizable
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Possible

Errors

1) Sampling Error (due to sample size) 2) Non Sampling or Systematic Error (due to incorrect sampling frame, faulty sample design)

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Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Types

of

Sampling

Probability
 Every unit of pop. has equal chance of being selected.  Highly representative

Non-Probability
 Researcher decides on the sample unit  Not representative

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Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Types…contd..
Conditions :

Probability
   Complete list is required Size of universe must be known Each unit must have an equal chance of selection Desired sample must be specified   

Non-Probability
No list is required Size of universe may not be known Each unit may not have an equal chance of selection

9/29/2012

Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Techniques of Sampling
PROBABILITY
Simple Random Stratified Random Systematic Cluster

NON-PROBABILITY
Convenience Purposive  Judgment  Quota Snowball Volunteer

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Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Sample

Size

Sample size depends upon the precision of results expected. Sample should be sufficiently large to conclude generalizable results. For this matter we have to take into account the level of confidence ( 0.05 or 0.01 ).

Different formulae are used depending upon the constraints. Commonly used one is…. S = n/ 1+n(e)2
Higher the sample size greater is the generalizability, but you lose on precision of sampling.

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Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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Prepare a sampling plan for the research problem that you have selected. Explain why you will follow the technique you have selected.

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THANK

YOU

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Dr. Vidya Naik Session 6

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