Planning Theories

 Started in 20th century

 Sociologist: Patrick Geddes,

Ebenezer Howard, Lewis Mumford – enter in the field of town planning  Other Town Planners: Le Corbusier, Griffith Taylor, Clarence Stein, Henry Wright, Patrick Abercrombie and Charles Correa.

 Survey – Social and economic Surveys  First – Introduced Sociological concept in TP. .PATRICK GEDDES (1854-1932)  Town Planner (Sociologist) – Scotland  Book: Cities in Evolution  Emphasis on ‘Survey Before Plan’ - Diagnosis before treatment.  theory of conservative surgery.

of Madras) invitation – came to India in 1915.  Lord Pentland (Gov.  Advised for improvements in 18 major towns in India. . Human needs are most important than physical aspect.  He derived the term ‘Reciprocal Accommodation’.

PRINCIPALS OF TOWN PLANNING BY GEDDES:  Establishing organic relationship between      ‘Folk. . Function and Environment Folk Organism: Social aspect Place Function: Physical Aspect Work Environment: Economical Aspect City – a Physical utility – for a collective living – Governed by definite laws of growth – where environment played a great part. Place and Work’ Corresponds to triad (Geddesian triad) : Organism.

facts.  These ideas lead to the development of a small. . self sustained community settlement. The diagram symbolises an unending interplay between the 4 sections of life: acts. thoughts. deeds.

Notions of life: Patrick Geddes .

Concept of Garden City Landmark in history of TP.EBENEZER HOWARD (1850-1928)  Sociologist      – town planner. Country Magnet and Third magnet having attractive features of both town and country called Garden City. Letchworth. Welwyn are the first few Garden cities . Book : ‘Tomorrow’ later ‘Garden Cities of Tomorrow’ Diagram of ‘The Three Magnets’ – Town Magnet.


 The industries to be located on the outskirts of the town. .GARDEN CITY PRINCIPAL:  The dwellings for all classes of people should be distributed about a large central court in which the public buildings would be located.  The shopping centre to be located on the edge of the town.  The employment facilities for all the people to be provided by starting a variety of Industries.

 City should have permanent belt of agricultural land of 3 to 5 thousand acres. recreations centres  No private ownership . . will be brought under cooperative basis in order to control the finances and utilised for the upliftment of the community itself. theatres. hospitals. cottages  Amenities of Urban life such as schools.  Advantages of rural life such as fresh airs. playfeilds.


CLARENCE STEIN (1882-1975)  Architect – Town Planner  Great Influence of Garden City  Town Plan for a city Radburn in New Jersey .

PLANNING PRINCIPLES BY STEIN:  Grid iron system – greatest enemy of traffic      and road users. High Speed traffic roads should have limited access from the neighbourhood Footpaths for pedestrians should be safe and segregated from vehicular traffic. Houses to be turned inside out. Overall Planning – Superblock Superblocks to be enclosed by main roads. .

.  Cul-de-sac streets -These are loop street of dead end streets -To avoid through traffic. Community park spreading on whole of the area instead of one big chunk of land.

.PATRICK ABERCROMBIE (1879-1957)  Architect – Town Planner  He is best known for the post-Second World War re-planning of London  He synthesized the theories of sir Patrick Geddes and Ebenezer Howard.  Pioneer Planner to advocate Regional Planning.

PLANNING PRINCIPLES OF PATRICK ABERCROMBIE  ‘Civic Survey’ to be carried out before      planning. . Industrial should be located on the outer areas of the town. Planning not to be done on piece – meal basis. Town to be considered as whole unit. Uncontrolled growth should be stopped. Diagnosis before treatment.


Legislative assembly. . limb. footpaths.  City as a living organism  Towns are biological phenomena. such as      head. green belt. Raj Bhavan.LE CORBUSIER (1887-1965)  Architect – Town Planning. Arteries: Roads. heart. Secretariats. Heart: City Centre with commercial buildings and shops Limbs: Industries and Educational Institute Lungs: Parks and Playfields. lungs and arteries Head: high court.

 Population control: High density should be spread over the entire area.  Provision of speedy transportation.PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING BY LE CORBUSIER:  Populations residing in the core of the city should be removed and inhabitate at outer countryside in satellite towns. .  Provision of plenty of open spaces round the tall buildings throughout the length and breadth of the city.


International Planning. National Planning.  Population density as low as possible. Local Planning:  Influence by economic conditions.FORMS OF PLANNING:  According to Planning Authorities: Local Planning.  Zones are formed and traffic regulations are maintained. Regional Planning. Country Planning. .

 Suitable transport facility to link town with country.  Scope given to Village industry like poultry farms. dairies.Country Planning:  To develop in orderly manner on pre determined lines. weaving industries along with Agriculture. .  To avoid haphazard development.

 To develop region in a coordinated manner. of towns and villages. regional water supply and drainage. .Regional Planning:  Planning for much larger region  Principles more or less same as town planning  Region – Territory within 15 to 50 km containing no.  Deals with planning of regional transport.

potentialities in different fields of the nation. Irrigation.  Utilize national resouces in best possible way for development of nation.  Consider resources. Heavy Industries.  Works like Railways.National Planning:  Planning done at national level. Hydro electric works comes under national planning. .

housing. food education etc. .  UNO appoint agencies to conduct the surveys in different fields like health. goodwill among different nation of the world.International Planning:  Came into existence with establishment of United Nations Organization (UNO)  Promote Cooperation.  To provide suitable solution for the problems at international level.

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