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Antimicrobial agent

PRESENTED BY: Clarisse Perea Ayr Hershel Masenas Jhamaica Porol Joverlyn Orina Emily Sobremisana

An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbiocidal) or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiostatic). Disinfectants are antimicrobial substances used on non-living objects or outside the body.

antibiotics, which are natural substances produced by certain groups of microorganisms. chemotherapeutic agents, which are chemically synthesized.

Antibiotic

The word antibiotic comes from the Greek

word anti meaning 'against' and bios meaning 'life' (a bacterium is a life form).' Antibiotics are also known as antibacterials, and they are drugs used to treat infections caused by bacteria. Bacteria are tiny organisms that can sometimes cause illness to humans and animals. The singular word for bacteria is bacterium.

How do antibiotics work?


Although there are a number of different types of antibiotic they all work in one of two ways: A bactericidal antibiotic kills the bacteria. Penicillin is a bactericidal. A bactericidal usually either interferes with the formation of the bacterium's cell wall or its cell contents. A bacteriostatic stops bacteria from multiplying.

What are antibiotics for?


An antibiotic is given for the treatment of an infection caused by bacteria. Antibiotics target microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and parasites. However, they are not effective against viruses. If you have an infection it is important to know whether it is caused by bacteria or a virus. Most upper respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold and sore throats are generally caused by viruses - antibiotics do not work against these viruses.

If antibiotics are overused or used incorrectly there is a chance that the bacteria will become resistant - the antibiotic becomes less effective against that type of bacterium. A broad-spectrum antibiotic can be used to treat a wide range of infections. A narrow-spectrum antibiotic is only effective against a few types of bacteria. There are antibiotics that attack aerobic bacteria, while others work against anaerobic bacteria. Aerobic bacteria need oxygen, while anaerobic bacteria don't.

Microorganisms that Produce Antibiotics

Penicillium and Cephalosporium molds


produce beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporin and their relatives. They also produce the base molecule for development of semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics, such as amoxacillin and ampicillin. Beta-lactams are used to treat about onethird of outpatients with bacterial infections.

Actinomycetes, mainly Streptomyces species

produce tetracyclines, aminoglycosides (streptomycin and its relatives), macrolides (erythromycin and its relatives), chloramphenicol, ivermectin, rifamycins, and most other clinically-useful antibiotics that are not beta-lactams. Actinomycetes are the mainstay of the antibiotics industry.

Bacillus species
such as B. polymyxa and B. subtilis, produce polypeptide antibiotics (e.g. polymyxin and bacitracin), and B. cereus produces zwittermicin.Bacillus species have the relatively rare ability to form a type of resting cell called an endospore. Bacilli are Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria that live in the soil. They play an important ecological role in aerobic decomposition, biodegradation and mineral recycling.

chemotherapeutic agents

any chemical used to treat cancer. It is usually used to refer to antineoplastic drugs. antineoplastic drug - any of several drugs that control or kill neoplastic cells; used in chemotherapy to kill cancer cells; all have unpleasant side effects that may include nausea and vomiting and hair loss and suppression of bone marrow function

Types of chemotherapeutic drugs


Currently, there are about 100 chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat cancer. The majority of chemotherapeutic drugs can be divided into alkylating agents, antimetabolites, antitumor agents, antibiotics, plant alkaloids, hormones and immune inhibitor.

Advantages
Increase

therapeutic efficacy for tumor and shrink tumor till it disappears. Control tumor growth and metastases and prolong life expectancy. Palliate symptoms and improve quality of life.