What is Wine

What is Wine?
“To Serve with Knowledge & Pour with Skill”

You can make wine from almost any organic substance that contains sugar and water typically found in fruits and vegetables. Five basic types of wine are:      Red Wine White Wine Rose Wine Sparkling Wine . .from Madeira Islands made from cooked grapes & aged Marsala .The Definition    Wine is the fermented juice of any fruit or vegetable.Italian wine made from concentrated grape juice. Port .Spanish style wine (amber to brown) can be made sweet or not sweet.high alcohol content – – – – Sherry .Sweet red wine originally from Portugal Madeira .carbonated Fortified Wine .Wine .

grape solids) and yeast to achieve a balance of wine qualities: sweetness  acidity  alcohol content    Why grapes? Wine from grapes possesses a good combination of these qualities. While natural occurring yeast on the grapes will work. water. It involves working with grape juice (natural sugars. winemakers tend to use developed strains of yeast today. .Why use grapes to make wine?   Winemaking is the art of making wine.

such as the temperature. The grapes can be harvested manually or by mechanical pickers. amount of sun and rainfall. wine grapes are usually harvested at a Brix of 22 to 28. Manually picked grapes are typically higher quality. availability of nutrients. As the grapes ripen. Ripening will depend on many factors. the sugar level increases and the acidity decreases.How is wine made?  It starts in the vineyard at harvest:      It is important to wait until the grapes reach the proper maturity for the varietal of grape & style of wine being made. Manual picking Mechanical picking . The sugar level is measured in units of “Brix”.

 The sugar in the wine is used by the yeast to produce ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas.  The type of yeast can affect the qualities of the wine as will other compounds in the wine . which is called “must”. thus making wine.  There are a variety of presses that are used to produce the juice.  Crusher Small Bladder Press Large Rotary Press .some naturally occurring and some that are byproducts of the winemaking process.How is wine made?  After harvesting: The grapes are transported to the winery where they undergo destemming and crushing.

which give differing qualities to the wine. the wine can be transferred to oak barrels for aging for 6 to 24 months.How is wine made?  Fermentation and Aging:      After crushing and pressing the must is transferred to large. Active Yeast Cells Fermentation Tanks Barrel filling Barrel aging . The wine maker will then blend the various lots of wine to produce a finished wine ready for bottling. Once fermentation is complete. as well. The barrels are usually made from either French or American Oak. But. refrigerated stainless steel tanks where it is fermented to produce wine. Some wine is aged in old barrels and some in new to produce different characteristics. not all wine is oak aged.

 Most wine is consumed within three years of bottling. which spoils the wine.  But some fine wines gain added flavor and bouquet with time in the bottle if it is stored at 50 to 60 F.  The wines commonly aged in the bottle are:  – – – – – – Cabernet Sauvignon (Red) Pinot Noir (Red) Chardonnay (White) Champagne (White Sparkling) Port Sherry Bottles being filled Bottling line Large Commercial Cellar Small in-home cellar . But.How is wine made?  Bottling and Cellaring: After the wine is complete it is transferred to bottles. humidity is also important so that the corks do not dry out.

such as Chardonnay. will benefit with some bottle age. The must is left with the skins during fermentation to produce the red color. Red wine is commonly aged in oak barrels for 6 to 24 months. such as Cabernet Sauvignon. some red wines.     Grapes for red wine are harvested. The wine is bottled. The wine is bottled Most white wines are not bottle aged but consumed with in 3 years of bottling. The must is fermented in stainless steel tanks. . However. Many red wines are ready to drink after bottling. crushed.Differences in making red & white wine  White Wine:     Red Wine:      Grapes for white wine are harvested and pressed. However. is aged in oak barrels. Some white wines. an exception is particularly fine wines made from Chardonnay and Champagne.

The wine is bottled. It is fermented like a white wine.Making blush & sparkling wines  Blush Wine:      Champagne (Sparking) Wine:        Red grapes are harvested for Rose or Blush wine. The additional sugar and yeast produce carbon dioxide. More sugar and yeast is added to the wine. Most sparkling wines are made to drink young. If a sweet wine is desired then the fermentation is stopped before all of the sugar is consumed. But. The wine is bottled Blush wines are not commonly bottle aged but consumed within 3 years of bottling. The must is fermented in stainless steel tanks. which carbonates the wine. Before fermentation the must is left with the skin for a short time.   Grapes for sparking wine are harvested and pressed. . The second fermentation is stopped. fine Champagne will benefit with additional bottle age.

Fortified wine maybe aged in oak barrels before bottling. the must may be handled in different ways to intensify the flavor before and during fermentation. Many fortified wines will benefit with bottle age. . Depending on the type of wine. Most fortified wines have an addition of alcohol (brandy) to stop fermentation and increase the alcohol content.Making fortified wine  Fortified Wine:      Grapes for fortified wines are harvested like for other wines.

However. After harvesting. Most wine is made to be consumed within 3 years of production. The must is fermented and sometimes aged in oak to add flavor and aroma in some wines before bottling. acidity and alcohol. Manually harvested grapes are usually preferred. crushed (or pressed) to produce the juice. grapes are destemmed. wine from grapes can possess a good balance of three important qualities: sweetness. referred to as “must”. However. some fine wines may gain special qualities by further bottle aging. Wine can be made from many fruits and vegetables. Sparkling wines such as Champagne are made by imposing a secondary fermentation in the bottle to produce carbonation.Summary          Wine grapes are harvested either manually or mechanically. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful