History, Theory and Philosophy of Sports

- Prof. Subrato Datta

 Play refers to a range of voluntary. defined by a goal that the players try to reach.Definition  Sports is defined as a competitive. Games are played primarily for entertainment or enjoyment.  Game is a recreational activity involving one or more players. human physical activity that requires skill and exertion and governed by the Institutional rules. . and some set of rules to play it. intrinsically motivated activities that are normally associated with pleasure and enjoyment.

History of Olympics  It has started more than 3000 years ago in Greece. sport was regarded other than the physical excellence preparing several religious purposes. there were no religious festival without sport meet. SPORT WAS WORSHIP AND MAN WAS OFFERING THE MOST VALUABLE ACHIEVEMENT. .  The Greek started the games in honour of their God – Zeus. THE EXCELLENCE OF PERFECT FROM TO DEVINITY. In earlier days. In those days.

and the game was founded in honour their god.Zeus.Ancient Olympics In the Greek history. . it was mentioned that the first Olympic Games were held in Athens in 776 B.C.

son of Zeus.C.  Another Legend faces the origin of the Olympic Games to the Demi god.Heracles (Herculies). He celebrated his victory by instituting the Olympics Games in honour of Zeus.THE MOTHER OF GODS WAS SET UP IN OLYMPICS AROUND 1370 B. .Myths There were few myths and legends on the history of Ancient Olympics.  THE ALTER OF REHA.

the King of Gods. claimed the Princess by defeating the King in a Chariot race and became the King of Elis. the founder of a DynastyElis. Pelops. It was held in honour of dead heroes.Myths (contd…)  Third Legend says.C.1230 B. He established Olympic Games in remembrance his victory and dedicated Zeus. However. Hence. the games were dedicated to Zeus. it is possible the games did start to honor the dead heroes. The evidence date these games. whatever the origin.  Homer’s epic Iliad provides another story. . It describes the funeral games.

according to the record. The main event was the foot race known as Stade and there was controversy on the distance of the Stade.The Panhellenic Games The ancient Greece was not a country at that time. it was the collection of city states and which were known as Polis. Two prominent city states were Athens and Sparta.28 meters. . 1 Stade= 192. But.

javelin.The Panhellenic Games (contd…) Gradually various other events were included. discus. According to the various records. the number of events were as follows: Year No. and one of the most important event was PANKRATION which was the combination of boxing and wrestling. long-jump. of Events 776 BC 1 724 BC 14 to 200 BC 145 . such as wrestling.

2nd and 4th year of Olympiads Isthmia n Corinth Poseiden Nemean Nemea Zeus Celery.The details of Panhellenic Games Games Olympic Pythian Location Olympia Delphi God honoured Zeus Apollo Prize Olive Laurel wreath Celery Frequency Every 4 years Every 4 years. 3 years after the Olympic Games Every 2 years. then pine Every 2 years. as for Isthmian Games .

officials. But. players were allowed to have a safe passage. outstanding athletes were treated as demi God and these heroes were exempted from tax or honoured him with a horse and supply of food for the rest of the life.which were very valuable at that time. during the Olympic year.Ancient Olympics Small polis were always engaged in war between themselves. a truce were declared when the athletes. Prizes During the Panhellenic period. One could earn 100 vases of Olive oil. Pine branches etc. . It was a garland of wild Olive leaves or Laurel. the prizes were not that valuable.

the rules and regulations were strictly followed and anybody found indulging any unfair means. severe punishments were given. there was a game named as Hera Games for the unmarried girls. During the games. .Ancient Olympics Ancient Games were purely MALEdominated.ladies were not allowed even as a spectator. However.

they declared 104th Olympiad invalid. Political rivalry and more violence took place during the Roman rule. the games were held with armedguards present for protection.Ancient Olympics Politics. In 306 BC. When Eleans regained control over Olympic. . The city of Syracuse was banished from the Olympic Games in 480 BC.During those days. In 424 BC. there were disruptions during the Olympic Games. Arcadians took over Altis and controlled 140th Olympiad.

a runner named PHEIDIPPIDES staggered into Athens to announce the defeat of Persians and Athenians were the winners and PHEIDIPPIDES ran a distance of 230 kilometers from Marathon (this distance is a controversial one). . After announcing the word.Ancient Olympics Story of Marathon: In 490 BC.rejoice he collapsed and died. The grateful Athenians founded this event in his memory.as Marathon.

a cart and food from a restaurant for the rest of his life. like a house.Story of Marathon (contd…) Event Marathon was not a part of the Ancient Olympic Games. It was only introduced in the Modern Olympics of 1896 when Spyridon Loues of Greece won the first Marathon event. He was showered with lot of gifts. .

but could never regain their formal glory. In the 4th Century AD. Emperor Nero was a regular man in the Olympic. In AD 393. But the games did not continue beyond AD 426 when the temple of Zeus was destroyed on the orders of Theodosius II. The Romans felt these games were anti.Christians and hence it must be stopped . Although the Ancient Olympics enjoyed a brief revival under some Roman rulers. The site remained virtually undisturbed until 1875 when excavations uncovered the site. when the emperor Theodosius I abolished all pagan festivals.Demise of the Ancient Olympics Romans conquered Greece. . but they did not stop Olympic Games. earth quakes and floods covered the area.

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