Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A.


Chapter 2

Foundations of Individual Behavior

Ability • Refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job • Is a current assessment of what one can do • Intellectual ability is one of the best predictors of performance • The correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction is about zero • Employee performance is enhanced when there is a high ability-job fit 2-3 .

Attitudes • Evaluative statements – either favorable or unfavorable – concerning objects. people or events • Attitudes reflect how one feels about something 2-4 .

Major Components of Attitude • Cognition – an opinion or belief • Affect – the emotional or feeling segment • Behavior – the intention to behave in a certain way 2-5 .

the individual may alter either the attitudes or behavior. or develop a rationalization for the discrepancy 2-6 .Consistency of Attitudes • People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior • When there is an inconsistency.

Self-Perception Theory • The view that behavior influences attitudes • Argues that attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred rather than as devices that precede and guide action • Tend to infer attitude from behavior when you have had few experiences regarding an issue • Attitudes likely to guide behavior when your attitudes have been established for a while 2-9 .

Major Job Attitudes • • • • Job satisfaction Job involvement Psychological empowerment Organizational commitment  Affective commitment  Continuance commitment  Normative commitment • Perceived organizational support • Employee engagement 2-10 .

What causes job satisfaction? • Work itself – the strongest correlation with overall satisfaction • Pay – not correlated after individual reaches a level of comfortable living • Advancement opportunities • Supervision • Coworkers • A person’s personality 2-11 .

Effects of Satisfied and Dissatisfied Employees • Job performance – strong correlation • OCB – modest relationship but more related to conceptions of fair outcomes. treatment and procedures • Customer Satisfaction – strong correlation • Absenteeism – moderate to weak negative correlation • Turnover – moderate negative correlation • Workplace deviance – strong correlation 2-12 .

Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. • Learning involves change • The change must become ingrained • Some form of experience is necessary for learning 2-13 .

Theories of Learning • Operant Conditioning  Argues that people learn to behave to get something they want or avoid something they don’t want • Social Learning  Individuals can learn by observing what happens to other people and just being told about something. as well as by direct experiences 2-14 .

Methods of Shaping Behavior 1. Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction 2-15 . 3. 2. 4.