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PAKISTAN FLOOD 2011

IBRAHIM SAMOON, DIRECTOR ACE PAKISTAN ZARIF KHERO, EXECUTIVE ENGINEER, IRRIGATION DEPARTMENT, SINDH PAKISTAN

INTRODUCTION
The flood of 2011 in Sindh province, Pakistan began during monsoon season in mid August 2011, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in Sindh, eastern Balochistan and southern Punjab.
The flood caused catastrophic damages and approximately 500 civilian lost their lives, with 5.3 million people and 1,525,000 house affected.

Sindh is a fertile region and often called the bread basket of the country; the damage and toll of the flood on the local agrarian economy is extensive. At least 15 millions acres of land was inundated as a result of the flooding.
The 2011 flood not only caused heavy damages, but also exposed the shortcomings of existing drainage system on the left bank of river Indus in Sindh Province.

Sindh

RAINFALL

Sindh Rainfall (July August)

July

August

First Spell of Monsoon July August

900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Sindh Rainfall (August Sept)

Rainfall in mm 30 August 12 September

500

Hyderabad Karachi Sukkar Khairpur Ghotki Jacobabad Matiari Kambar Larkana Kashmore Thatta Badin Mirpurkhar Sanghar Tharparkar S.Benazirabad Tando M.Khan Naushero Feroze Dadu Tando Allahyar

Sindh Rain and Cloud Burst


13 September
Satellite imagery Pakistan Met Department

Rain may continue for 5 more days

Sindh

LBOD

Sindh

DISPLACEMENT, DAMAGES & LOSSES

Persons Affected: 5,355,441


1,200,000 1,021,301 1,000,000 927,953 900,000

800,000

705,151

600,000

400,000 267,368 253,982 200,000 172,067 72,980 91,400 335 8,450 145,030 100,000 52,355 180,851 178,151 127,454 -

138,003

12,610

Relief Camps
90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Population in Camps by District

Relief Camps: 2154 Male: 81,404 Female: 78,665 Children: 140,978 Total Population: 301,047

Kamber

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

No of Camps by District

Hyderabad

Shikarpur

Ghotki

N.Feroze

Sanghar

Larkano

Khairpur

Sh.Benazirabad

Kashmore

Jacobabad

T.Allahyar

Mirpurkhas

Tharparkar

Jamshoro

T.M.Khan

Umerkot

Karachi

Dadu

Matiari

Sukkur

Thatta

Badin

Relief Camps in Schools

Houses Damaged: 1,190,454


400,000 382,562 350,000
300,000

300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 75,049


54,950 50,518 32,060 9,974 4,2021,688 11,429 5,544 700 5,2421,620 10 50,800 32,164 27,697 15,458 10,677 118,110

Kamber

Tharparkar

Dadu

Larkano

Sh.Benazirabad

Shikarpur

Jamshoro

Hyderabad

Jacobabad

Mirpurkhas

T.Allahyar

Kashmore

T.M.Khan

Umerkot

Sanghar

N.Feroze

Khairpur

Karachi

Matiari

Sukkur

Ghotki

Thatta

Badin

Houses Damaged
Partially: 412,379 Fully: 423,773 Total Houses Damaged: 1,191,102

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

7,000

6,395 Badin 256 1,361 318 1 614 388 Dadu

Ghotki
Hyderabad Jacobabad Jamshoro Kamber

105 383

Kashmore Khairpur Larkano

5,770

Matiari Mirpurkhas

3,113 3,929

N.Feroze

Sanghar
Sh.Benazirabad

T.Allahyar T.M.Khan Tharparkar 630 Thatta Umerkot 1,555 1,254 1,357 1,691 Sukkur

No. of Villages Affected: 29,120

Shikarpur

Karachi

15

20

25

30

35

40

10

Badin 26 8 Dadu Ghotki 11 6 Hyderabad 2 6 Jacobabad Jamshoro Kamber

Kashmore 4
Khairpur

Larkano 7 Matiari Mirpurkhas N.Feroze Sanghar Sh.Benazirabad 3 Shikarpur 2 T.M.Khan Tharparkar Umerkot 7 Karachi Thatta T.Allahyar Sukkur

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Total Persons Died: 218

15 21 15 12 15 11

150

200

250

100

50

1 28 19 23 1 5 14 3 1 228 24 49 61 4 5 9 9 6 5 Karachi Umerkot Thatta Tharparkar T.M.Khan T.Allahyar Sukkur Badin Dadu Ghotki Hyderabad Jacobabad Jamshoro Kamber Kashmore Khairpur Larkano Matiari Mirpurkhas N.Feroze Sanghar

Sh.Benazirabad
Shikarpur

Persons Injured: 497

Area Affected (Acres):4,499,927


1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -

984,805

819,833

412,862 259,717 150,600 100,255 81,752 28,081 600 29,280 54,700 12,393 -

369,685 344,070

350,428

280,815
168,269 51,782 -

CROP AREA Damaged (Acres):1,595,052:


350,000 343,510

300,000

250,000

240,527

200,000

150,000 106,187 100,000 64,333 50,000 40,611

134,229

142,275 125,101

80,789 68,049 66,527 35,991 18,026 32,258 25,776 12,688

17,593 14,573 5,820 4,204 3,604


-

12,381 -

Area Affected vs Crop Area Damaged


1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 134,229 800,000 600,000 984,805 400,000 64,333 200,000 4,204 280,815 259,717 40,611 17,593 150,600 35,991 125,101 100,255 81,752 5,820 14,573 18,026 54,700 32,258 28,081 29,280 12,393 3,604 600 - 12,688 - 25,776 412,862 106,187 819,833 240,527 66,527 68,049 369,685 344,070 80,789 Area Affected (Acres)

343,510 Crops Area Damaged (Acres)

Hyderabad

Jamshoro

Kamber

142,275 350,428 168,269 12,381 51,782 -

Dadu

Ghotki

Sanghar

Larkano

T.Allahyar

Kashmore

T.M.Khan

Tharparkar

Jacobabad

Shikarpur

Sh.Benazirabad

Mirpurkhas

Umerkot

Khairpur

N.Feroze

Karachi

Matiari

Sukkur

Thatta

Badin

CROP Damages
As of 7th September 2011 Source: Agriculture Department

Total Area Sown: 4,321 Total Area Damaged: 1,595

1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0

1,639

1,701

Area Sown (000 acres)

850 646

366 139 158 141 13 12


Cotton Rice (Paddy) Sugarcane Chillies Tomato

Area Damaged (000 acres)

58 41
Onion

10 10
Musk Melmon

66

15

30 21
Kharif Vegetable

Banana

Cotton : 52 %
95 95

100 90 80 70

90

80
70

80
70 65 52 60 50 30 28 12 0 0 0 15 30 10 0

60
50 40 30 20 10 0

26

25

Rice: 22 %
80 70 60 60 50 40 30 20 20 10 0 0 0 15 10 5 2 1 10 2 2 5 2 8 2 7 0 0 35 25 75

55

Sugarcane: 21 %
35
35

35

30
30

25
25 20 15

25 20

25 20

25

10
10

10 5 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

10

5 0

Kharif Vegetables: 78 %
100 90 90 90 75 80 70 100 90

100 80 60

95

47
25

50

45

50

40
20 0

20
10 10 0 2 1 2 0

CROP PERCENTAGE AFFECTED DISTRICT WISE As of 7th Sept 2011


Kambar-Sh. Kot , Larkano , 7 Total % Kashmor 2 Jamshoro Jacobabad , 2 e-K. Kot , Karachi , 0 Dadu , 25, 10 , Ghotki , 24 Shikarpur 8 5 Sukkur , 24 N. S. Feroze , 19 Khairpur , 38 Mirpurkhas , 74 Tharparkar , 87
Mirpurkhas Tharparkar Umerkot T. A. Yar T. M. Khan Badin Thatta Sanghar

Shaheed Benazir Abad , 47 Matiari , 23 Hyderabad , 41

Umerkot , 73

Hyderabad Matiari Shaheed Benazir Abad

T. A. Yar , 54

N. S. Feroze Khairpur

Sanghar , 60 Thatta , 55 Badin , 69

T. M. Khan , 48

Sukkur Ghotki Shikarpur Jacobabad Kashmore-K. Kot Kambar-Sh. Kot Larkano Dadu Jamshoro Karachi

IRRIGATION

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RAIN DEVASTATION 2011 IN SINDH


Recorded rainfall since 12-08-2011 to-date from 350 875 mm (14 35) in various Districts of Sindh (aggregate). L.B.O.D design provides for 50 mm rain on 5 yr return period. The current rains devastated mainly Districts, Tharparkar, Badin, Shaheed Benazirabad, Mirpurkhas, Tando Mohammad Khan, Tando Allahyar, Badin, Khairpur & generally other Districts of Sindh. Flushing of Rain water into Drainage System beyond its capacity (LBOD more than 18000 against designed discharge of 4000 cusecs).
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RAIN DEVASTATION 2011 IN SINDH


Design of LBOD for limited capacity and other drainage systems (40-50 mm) and return period of 10 years only. Development of serious rain breaches and over topping. Thirty Two (32) breaches occurred along tail channels of various canals in Sindh. Breaches closed immediately. Many sub drains either entirely sub-merged or breached. Breaches closed wherever, sites were accessible. Accumulation of rain water in cities/towns and other areas of various districts due to incapacitated drainages infrastructure.
2

RAIN DEVASTATION 2011 IN SINDH


Problem Augmentation: LBOD bridges, aqueducts and water courses crossings due to less passing capacity caused tremendous fluming resulting overtopping and breaches upstream.

Partially choked drainage system.


Encroachments of Natural water ways by locals.

Forcible cuts in drains and Irrigation Channels by the farmers and locals for early evacuation of lands and settlements (common human psyche).
3

LBOD MAP
SALIENT FEATURES
Spinal Drain KPOD/DPOD Tidal Link Surface Drains Drainage Wells : 210 KM : 99 KM : 43 KM : 1666 KM : 1673 Nos. : 1795 KM

Shahdadkot

Shikarpur Sukkur Sukkur Barrage

Qambar
Khairpur

Larkana

Khairpur N.S

Kandiaro

Moro Dadu Sehwan Manchar Lake Jamrao Head Works Baffle Chute Structure

Tile/Interceptor Dr:

Chotiari Reservoir : 0.71 maf


Benefited Area Project Cost Commencement Completion : 1.270 M.A : Rs.33.44 Bill: : July 1986 : Dec, 2002

NAWABSHAH
Sakrand Hala Tando Adam MIRPURKHAS Kotri Barrage Tando Allahyar

CHOTIARI RESERVIOR
SANGHAR

Nara Canal Umerkot

Hyderabad

SPINAL DRAIN Digri 26 kms Off Take RD 303 Nabisar Depression

Karachi

T.M khan Kinjar Lake Matli Thatta

Badin

RD 159

Mirpur Sakro Jati

Dhoro Puran Outfall Drain


RD 0+0

Shakoor Dhand
Shah Rann of Kutch

COMPONENTS OF LBOD SYSTEM

DETAILS OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM


Total
Description Sub Drains Branch Drains Main Drains OUTFALL DRAINS No of drains 149 11 10 Length in mile 629.31 130.82 207.934

Spinal Drain
DPOD KPOD Tidal link

1
1 1 1

131.4
25.4 36.08 24.72
6

STRATEGY FOR EVACUATION OF RAIN WATER

Through suitable natural drainage routes into River Indus or given way to local depressions. Through existing drainage system immediately after receding of LBOD to normal gauges. Pumped into irrigation canals at acceptable ratios as the demand of water by growers for their cultivation.

AREAS UNDER INUNDATION UPTO 12-09-2011 IN VARIOUS DISTRICTS


Inundated Flood District Area Volume Total Area (Sq.km) (MAF) (Sq.km) (Approx) (Approx) 2553 700 0.5

District Name Shaheed Benazirabad Badin


Mirpurkhas Thatta Hyderabad

Total Rainfall (mm) 640

680
810 250 400

6889
2946 18267 5544

2800
600 3200 500

0.8
0.25 0.4 0.33

Tando M.Khan

375

1541

300

0.15

TOTAL

37740

8100

2.43
8

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MEASURES TAKEN BY THE DEPARTMENTS On the receipt of weather warning, all Main Canals completely closed on 28th August, 2011 on emergency basis.

Adequate machinery and labour has been deployed along entire Drainage system and F.P Bund being areas of concern.
Concerned District Administrations enforces sanction to not allow any unauthorized cut in main canals and drains by locals.
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WAY FORWARD
Re-sectioning and rehabilitation of existing drainage system on emergent basis. International consultancy underway for developing the long term solutions of flood & mitigation in LBOD and other areas. Study under process with the consultative approach by involving all stakeholders. Reactivating the old natural water ways and diverting flood water to desert area for further/later use. A proposal for carrying-out comprehensive study for identification of natural and suitable drainage routes for towns, cities and cultivable areas etc. in lower Indus basin. Comprehensive early warning system & foresight.
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Only dry spots were the embankments and when those began surrendering against heavy wave wash

Ultimate Option

Where to go ?

Badin

Half of Province of Sindh affected in Flood 2010

Another half of Province of Sindh affected in Flood 2011

Thank you all