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# LECTURE 13 (Ch.

5) DC-DC CONVERTERS
ECE 452 Power Electronics
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A step-up converter with a resistive load is shown below.

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Vs I 2  i1 (t  kT )  kT  I 1 L 3 . The current equation for mode 1 is: di1 Vs  L dt Vs i1 (t )  t  I1 L  At the end of mode 1 at t = kT.

Then: di2 Vs  R i2  L E dt Vs  E i2 (t )  (1  e L  R t L  )  I2 e  R t L 4 . When the Switch S1 is opened (Mode 2). the current will flow through R and L.

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6 .Performance Parameters  The power semiconductor devices require minimum time to turn on and turn off.   The switching frequency of the converter is also limited. Therefore. the duty cycle k can only be controlled between kmin and kmax.

 The frequency should be as high as possible to reduce the load ripple current. 7 . and to minimize the size of any additional series inductor in the load circuit. The load ripple current depends inversely on the chopping frequency.

 Therefore. the performance parameters of the step-down and step-up converters are as follows: Ripple current  Maximum switching frequency  Continuous or discontinuous current  Minimum value of inductance to maintain  continuous current Output current and voltage THD  Input current THD  8 .

converters can be classified into five types: First quadrant converter  Second quadrant converter  First and second quadrant converter  Third and fourth quadrant converter  Four-quadrant converter  9 .Converter Classifications  Depending on the direction of the voltage and current flows.

Forward Motoring Forward Braking Reverse Motoring Reverse Braking 10 .

and is operated as a rectifier. 12 . This is a single-quadrant converter.

operated as an inverter. 14 . This is a single-quadrant chopper.

15 . where the battery E is a part of the load and may be the back emf of a dc motor. A second quadrant converter is shown in the following figure.

16 . the energy stored in the inductor will be returned to the supply Vs.  When the switch is turned off. the voltage E drives current through inductor L and the load voltage VL becomes zero. When the switch is turned on.

 17 . The load voltage is always positive.First & Second Quadrant Converter  The load current is either positive or negative.

The first and second quadrant converters can be combined to form this converter. This is a two-quadrant converter.  18 .

 S4 and D1 operate as a second quadrant converter.   19 . Care must be taken to ensure that the two switches are not fired together. S1 and D4 operate as a first quadrant converter. the supply Vs will be short-circuited. This converter can operate either as a rectifier or as an inverter. otherwise.

 20 . The load current is either positive or negative.Third & Fourth Quadrant Converter  The load voltage is always negative.

 S3 and D2 operate to yield a negative voltage and a negative load current. 21 . This converter can operate as a rectifier or as an inverter (negative two-quadrant operation).

22 . When S3 is closed.   S2 and D3 operate to yield a negative voltage and a positive load current. a negative current flows through the load. When S3 is opened. the load current freewheels through D2.

the load current freewheels through D3. When S2 is closed. When S2 is opened. a positive load current flows. The polarity of E should be reversed for this circuit to yield negative voltage and positive current. 23   .

Four Quadrant Converter  The load voltage and load current can be either positive or negative. 24 .  This is known as a four-quadrant converter.

 One first and second quadrant converter and one third and fourth quadrant converter can be combined to form this converter. 25 .

 For operation in the 3rd and 4th quadrant. 26 . the direction of the battery E must be reversed.