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You are on page 1of 26

5) DC-DC CONVERTERS

ECE 452 Power Electronics

1

**Step-Up Converter with Resistive Load
**

A step-up converter with a resistive load is shown below.

2

Vs I 2 i1 (t kT ) kT I 1 L 3 . The current equation for mode 1 is: di1 Vs L dt Vs i1 (t ) t I1 L At the end of mode 1 at t = kT.

Then: di2 Vs R i2 L E dt Vs E i2 (t ) (1 e L R t L ) I2 e R t L 4 . When the Switch S1 is opened (Mode 2). the current will flow through R and L.

5 .

6 .Performance Parameters The power semiconductor devices require minimum time to turn on and turn off. The switching frequency of the converter is also limited. Therefore. the duty cycle k can only be controlled between kmin and kmax.

The frequency should be as high as possible to reduce the load ripple current. 7 . and to minimize the size of any additional series inductor in the load circuit. The load ripple current depends inversely on the chopping frequency.

Therefore. the performance parameters of the step-down and step-up converters are as follows: Ripple current Maximum switching frequency Continuous or discontinuous current Minimum value of inductance to maintain continuous current Output current and voltage THD Input current THD 8 .

converters can be classified into five types: First quadrant converter Second quadrant converter First and second quadrant converter Third and fourth quadrant converter Four-quadrant converter 9 .Converter Classifications Depending on the direction of the voltage and current flows.

Forward Motoring Forward Braking Reverse Motoring Reverse Braking 10 .

Both the load voltage and the load current are positive. 11 .First Quadrant Converter The load current flows into the load.

and is operated as a rectifier. 12 . This is a single-quadrant converter.

13 . The load voltage is positive and the load current is negative.Second Quadrant Converter The load current flows out of the load.

operated as an inverter. 14 . This is a single-quadrant chopper.

15 . where the battery E is a part of the load and may be the back emf of a dc motor. A second quadrant converter is shown in the following figure.

16 . the energy stored in the inductor will be returned to the supply Vs. When the switch is turned off. the voltage E drives current through inductor L and the load voltage VL becomes zero. When the switch is turned on.

17 . The load voltage is always positive.First & Second Quadrant Converter The load current is either positive or negative.

The first and second quadrant converters can be combined to form this converter. This is a two-quadrant converter. 18 .

S4 and D1 operate as a second quadrant converter. 19 . Care must be taken to ensure that the two switches are not fired together. S1 and D4 operate as a first quadrant converter. the supply Vs will be short-circuited. This converter can operate either as a rectifier or as an inverter. otherwise.

20 . The load current is either positive or negative.Third & Fourth Quadrant Converter The load voltage is always negative.

S3 and D2 operate to yield a negative voltage and a negative load current. 21 . This converter can operate as a rectifier or as an inverter (negative two-quadrant operation).

22 . When S3 is closed. S2 and D3 operate to yield a negative voltage and a positive load current. a negative current flows through the load. When S3 is opened. the load current freewheels through D2.

the load current freewheels through D3. When S2 is closed. When S2 is opened. a positive load current flows. The polarity of E should be reversed for this circuit to yield negative voltage and positive current. 23 .

Four Quadrant Converter The load voltage and load current can be either positive or negative. 24 . This is known as a four-quadrant converter.

One first and second quadrant converter and one third and fourth quadrant converter can be combined to form this converter. 25 .

For operation in the 3rd and 4th quadrant. 26 . the direction of the battery E must be reversed.

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