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Definitions

-Stone is fabricated from rocks into individual panels veneer, ornamental pieces. Facing units or blocks, commonly referred to as dimensional stone or fragment of rock designated as broken or crushed stone. -The classification of rock are igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. -The dimension stone used in construction includes granite,, limestone, marble, sandstone, slate, obsidian, serpentine, soapstone and lava.

Types and properties of stone Natural stone. Igneous stone Are mainly formed through volcanic material such as magma. Underneath the Earths surface, liquid magma cooled and solidified. Mineral gases and liquids penetrated into the stone and created new crystalline formations with various colors Granite Granite is the most popular choice for memorials and monuments because it is extremely hard, resistant to scratching and very durable. It is available in a wide variety of colors and is so non-porous that it is almost impervious to weather and temperature changes. Granite was created when rock literally melted and was trapped under stone, forming crystals in a variety of colors as it cooled. Used for walling, cladding, plinths, window surrounds and steps. The composition is mainly feldspar, quartz and mica.

Bethel white granite

dark barre granite

Sedimentary stone Came from organic elements such as glaciers, rivers, wind, oceans, and plants. Tiny sedimentary pieces broke off from these elements and accumulated to form rock beds. They were bonded through millions of years of heat and pressure. The changes In composition of sand and gravel from time to time will produces layers with different properties and strength. Type of sedimentary stone are: Limestone Mainly consists of calcium carbonate. It does not show much graining or crystalline structure. It has a smooth granular surface. Varies in hardness. Some dense limestone's can be polished. Common colors are black, gray, white, yellow or brown. It is more likely to stain than marble. Limestone is known to contain lime from sea water. Limestone can be divided into: Olitically formed stone Organically formed stone Crystallization from solution Magnesium limestone Dolomitic limestone

Sandstone Is a very durable formation of quartz grains (sand). Usually formed in light brown or red colors. Categorized by the most popular sandstone bonding agents such as silica, calcium, clay, and iron oxide. Consist of fine or course quartz stone that contained feldspar and mica that bond by natural cement. the Sand stone can be divided into: Siliceous sandstone Calcareous sandstone Dolomite or magnesium sand stone Ferruginous sandstone Used for paving, walling, cladding, and coping. Fossilstone Considered a limestone that contains natural fossils such as sea shells and plants. Travertine: Usually a cream or reddish color. It is formed through the accumulation of calcite from hot springs. It contains lots of holes that were formed from water flowing through the stone. These holes are often filled with synthetic resins or cements. Requires lots of maintenance if the holes are not filled. Classified as a limestone and a marble.

Metamorphic stone Originates from a natural change from one type of stone to another type through the mixture of heat, pressure, and minerals. The change may be a development of a crystalline formation, a texture change, or a color change. Marble A recrystallized limestone that formed when the limestone softened from heat and pressure and recrystallized into marble where mineral changes occurred. The main consistency is calcium and dolomite. Ranges in many colors and is usually heavily veined and shows lots of grains. Hardness rates from 2.5 to on the MOH Scale. Marble is classified into three categories: (Stone World) Crashed marble used as aggregate in the terrazzo Natural polished and high value of appearance Too hard, dense and stand due abracion

Slates A fine grained metamorphic stone that formed from clay, sedimentary rock shale, and sometimes quartz. Very thin and can break easily. Usually black, grey, or green. Produced by pressure from soil toward clay. Surface of slate is in irregular shape The properties are: Long lasting Natural polished Varies in colors Used as block, coping, window sills, floor finishes, external paving.

Quartzites Formed from sandstone through the action of heat and recrystallization Contains 90% of silica Harder than granite Durable Varies in colors; grey, green, and goldish Cost involved are more economic and affordable

Man Made Stone Man Made Stones are derived of unnatural mixtures such resin or cement with the additive of stone chips. By using formwork we can get cast in varies size and shape. Example of man made stone Artificial Stone Reconstructed stone

Properties of stone Strength high tension and compressive Hardness-important if used on floor slab workability-easy to mould based on size and shape require. Durability-stand to rain,wind,dust,heat and fire. Colours and texture-give the esthetic value. Easy to break.(Quary) Easy to obtained. in void condition.

Granite Method of production-Quarried,cut to size(masoning and sawing),finish as required.For example patterned,rock faced,fair picked,fine axed,rubbed,eggshell, or polished Density(kg/M3)2400-2900 Compressive Strength(MN/M2) (90-146) Effect of fire - Non combustible Water absorption(%) (0.1-0.5) Moisture expansion(%)- None Effect of chemical- Resistant to most acids. Resistance to effect of soluble salt Poor Good.

Limestone Method of production - Quarried,cut to size(masoning and sawing),finish as required.For example patterned,rock faced,fair picked,fine axed,rubbed,eggshell, or polished Density(kg/m3) 2100-2350 Compressive strength(MN/m2) 15-30 Effect of fire Non-combustible Water absorption(%) 6-11 Moisture expansion(%)- About 0.01 Effect of chemical-Attacked by acids Resistance to effect of soluble salt Poor-very good

Sandstone Method of production - Quarried,cut to size(masoning and sawing),finish as required.For example patterned,rock faced,fair picked,fine axed,rubbed,eggshell, or polished Density(kg/m3) 1950-2550 Compressive strength(MN/m2) 21-105 Effect of fire- Non combustible Water absorption(%) 2-8.5 Moisture expansion(%)-0.07 Effect of chemical-Resistant to most acids except calcareous types which are attacked. Resistance to effect of soluble salt-Poor - good

Marbles Method of production - Quarried,cut to size(masoning and sawing),finish as required.For example patterned,rock faced,fair picked,fine axed,rubbed,eggshell, or polished Density(kg/m3) 2725-2900 Compressive strength(MN/m2) about 60 Effect of fire- Non combustible Water absorption(%) 0.1-0.5 Moisture expansion(%)-negligible Effect of chemical- attacked by acids Resistance to effect of soluble salt- good

Slate Method of production - Quarried,cut to size(masoning and sawing),finish as


required.For example patterned,rock faced,fair picked,fine axed,rubbed,eggshell, or polished Density(kg/m3) 2400-2900 Compressive strength(MN/m2) 75-200 Effect of fire- Non combustible Water absorption(%) negligible Moisture expansion(%)-mainly resistant to acids Effect of chemical-attacked by acids Resistance to effect of soluble salt-good

Quartzites Method of production Finish-natural riven Density(kg/m3) about 2600 Compressive strength(MN/m2)- about 100 Effect of fire- Non combustible Water absorption(%) 0.1-0.5 Moisture expansion(%)- negligible Effect of chemical- resistant to most acids Resistance to effect of soluble salt- good

Manufacturing of stone History and manufacture


-The three basic materials available to him were wood,stone,and mud or clay. Stone was the structural materials, the exterior and interior finishing material, the flooring material and in many cases the roofing material. -Today stone is used almost entirely as a surface finishing material for both the exterior and interior of buildings.
Cut granite machine

References Wiley Interscience, Construction Materials, Types, Uses and Application, 2nd edition, Caleb Hornbostel, 1991. McGraw-Hill, Time-Saver Standard for Building Materials and Systems by Donald Watson, 2000. www.buildingwithScottishstone.com

PREPARED BY: NUR AMALIA HANI BT ROSLAND 2008212362 NUR NASHRAH BT SAMSUDIN 2008212884 SHAZWANIATIKA BT JALALUDIN 2008212306 SYAZWAN BT ABDUL WAHAB 2008212468 FATHIAH BT MOHD ROSLAN 2008212938 NORZIYANI BT YAACOB 2008212818 [QS1C]