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COORDINATOR: S.L. DR. ING.

COVATARIU DAN

-2011-2012-

CONTENT
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

SET UP OF THE TOPOGRAPHIC PLAN OF A SURFACE (THE FACULTY COURTYARD) USING THE TACHIMETRIC CLOSED CIRCUIT COMBINED WITH RADIATION POINTS DRAWING UP THE LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSAL PROFILE OF THE ROADS USING THE METHOD OF ENDING GEOMETRIC LEVELMENT DETERMINATION OF AREA OF PLANIMETRIC TRAVERS USING TWO DIFFERENT METHODS DETERMINATION OF THE HEIGHT OF R BUILDING DETERMINATION OF THE VERTICALITY OF THE ARHITECTURE BUILDING MODERN INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS USED IN LAND-SURVEYING LAND-SUREVEYING INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES USED FOR THE FOLLOW UP OF CONSTRUCTION IN TIME

Sketch of the Travers

The working stages


In order to understand how the measurements were done, we

consider one example (station point in 103). we install the theolite in point 103 we measure the height of the instrument using the stadia we put the stadia exactly above point 102 we aim from the station point the stadia located on point 102 using the fine adjusting screws we slowly rotate the theodolite until L0 corresponds to the height of the instrument having the middle of the crosshair located exactly on the height of the instrument, we read L2 and L1

in the same time, we set the horizontal angle as being 0 in the direction of point 102 the zenithal angle is written down and one member of the group makes the calculation in order to determine the inclined distance from the station point to point 102. The formula is (L2L1) x 100 x sinV, where L2 and L1 are the readings on the stadia and V is the zenithal angle. After this we set the instrument in the

second position and we follow the same steps like above. Having data from two positions of the instrument, the more precise data will be the arithmetic mean of the two measurements. Having this data written down in the table, we move the stadia to the point 104, which is a traverse point in our case.

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Like in the previous case we rotate the telescope such as the

middle of crosshair to correspond to the height of the instrument. Having this thing done, the operator reads L2, L1, V and H. The member of the group in charge with calculation determines the inclined distance from the station point to the radiation point using the same formula as above and he also writes down in the table the horizontal angle H which represents the horizontal angle from the two alignments (103-102 and 103-104) After this, we rotate the theodolite in the second position and we read again all the values needed (L2, L1, V, H). The more precise measurement will be the arithmetic g.mean of the two sets of readings. Having the data written down in the table we can aim the next point which can be a radiation point or a point from the traverse. We follow the same steps like above in order to determine the distances and angles for all the points, both radiation and traverse.

Final Topographic Plan

Stages of drawing up a topographic transversal and longitudinal profile


1. Establishing and drawing up the sketch

of the given traverse 2. Marking up the points of the traverse 3. Setting up the instrument in the station point 4. In each point we install the stadia and read Lo, L1 and L2, values which will be transcribed in a table 5. For each station point we make readings forward and backwards (for checking up). 6. After the readings are registered we change the height of the instrument and check the values 7. For each station point the same procedure is applied.

Sketch of the travers

Calculus for a transversal profile:


1. Register the values from the readings 2. We calculate the average value of the instrument heights and of the Lo readings in the 2 positions 3. The level difference is the difference between Ia and Lo 4. The absolute level of a point is the sum between z and Z of the station point 5. With the given values we draw up a topographic plane for each transversal profile and for the longitudinal profile

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Area determination by analytic method


This method is used for calculating the areas when the rectangular coordinates of the corner of the polygon are known. Comparing with the other method the analytic method ensures the highest accuracy and doesnt require the presence of the site or topographic plan. The general formula for the area of a n-sides polygon is:

For controlling the calculations well use the formula of the double negative area:

The second determination of area is a direct one using a computer program (AutoCAD)

Procedure:
In the general case we will consider that the distance from the

theodolite to the construction that we are analysing, can not be measured. We will choose two points A and B so we can measure the distance between it and form a rectangular triangle with the corner of the building, which will be denoted by C. From point A and B will be measured the following: The distance dAB between the station points; The horizontal angles through the building and ; The vertical angle i and i made by the direction of measuring from the station point with the upper part and lower part of the building.

www.studentie.ro Sketch of R building and the points that we were interested in

Measurement on the first corner of the R building

Measurement on the second corner of the R building

d
A

A
1

d
AC

A
1

H1=16.495m B
1

H2=16.43m
B
1

Measurement on the third corner of the R building

Measurement on the forth corner of the R building

h2=15.08 2m

d
A
C

A
1

R
h1=1.45 2m

=39g 36c

A
21.2 0m

H3=16.569m

B
1

H4=16.53m

CONCLUSION
The lowest point is the corner 2 with height 16.43m so this means that in this corner we have a compaction.

Procedure: occurs at tall In general this situation

buildings during building and exploitation of them. We choose 2 stations points approximately perpendicular ,A and B, with visibility through the triangulation points, in our case a fixed point, from which we aim the base and the top of the building. The distance from which the stations are located from the theodolite is 1-1.5 H, where H is the height of the building, the easiest method of determining of two directions being the directions determined by the extensions of the two walls. From the two stations we will measure horizontal angles made by the reference directions with the direction to the base, repectively to the top of the building. We will also measure the distances from the stations to the base of the building.

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Sketch of R building and the points that we were interested in

Measurement on the first corner of the R building

Measurement on the second corner of the R building

Q=0.0731m

Q=0.0532m

Measurement on the third corner of the R building

Measurement on the forth corner of the R building

Q=0.0768m

Q=0.0345m

CONCLUSION
The four corners of the building arent perfectly vertical, because of the compaction of the ground, earthquakes or other types of damage.

Optical hand clinometer NECLI


The Optical Hand Clinometer is

suitable for fast and easy measurements, i.e. of vertical angles (rising and falling lines of sight), i.a. for the determination of heights of trees and buildings, for the determination of vertical angles and heights for the assembly and control of mobile and directional antennas, for the determination of wall heights and drill angles of bore holes in quarries, forestry surveys, measurement of longitudinal and transversal profiles and for the reduction of inclined distances to the horizontal.

Telescopic alidade MECOL


Alidades are used for

topographical surveys, to complete topographical maps and for supplementing photogrammetric surveys.

Autoreduction telescopic alidade MERED


Particularly suitable for

topographical surveys and for supplementing photogrammetric surveys. Telescope with erect image, magnification 25x, effective objective aperture 40 mm with autoreduction diagram for direct measurement of horizontal distances and differences in elevation.

Topographical range finder TODIS


The Topographical Range

Finder is suitable for topographical and cadastral surveys according to the polar method, for river and quarry surveys, engineering, geological and forest surveys. It is distinguished by simple handling (aiming at vertical contours) and fast measurements.

Universal plane table tacheometer MEWES


The Universal Plane

Table Tacheometer is used for polar surveys supplementing photogrammetric surveys and for the preparation of planning documents for road construction

Laser Impulse Distance Measurement Equipment LADIS


The LADIS is used for

rapid distance measurements with integrated inclination sensor for the determination of height differences, object heights and inclination angles.

Purpose :
Obtain information in order

to ensure construction ability for a normal operation, assessment of conditions for prevent the incidents, accidents and damage, respectively the reduction of damage property, the loss of life and environmental degradation(natural, social ,cultural); Obtain the necessary information improvement in construction activity.

The behavior in time of construction have two categories:


Current-Track:

consists of observing and recording aspects of phenomena and parameters that can indicate changes in capacity building to meet requirements for strength, stability and durability established by projects. It is made by direct visual inspection or simple means of measuring current use. Special Track is a performance monitoring construction activity that consists of measuring recording, processing and interpretation of systematic parameter values which defining the extent to buildings retain their requirements strength, stability and durability established by the project.

Methods of following up the construction in time


Monitoring crack
Monitoring of settlements Monitoring of displacement / deformation plane

Monitoring of displacement / deformation space -

3D

The land surveying instruments used for the follow up of construction in time are:
Starting from the measured instruments and the used methods, we can make the following classification:
The measurement of distances: -measuring tapes and surveying ribbons, invar line, stadia BALA, electro-optical instruments, laser instruments, interferometer

-rulers, micrometer, calipers, measurement monitor, laserinterferometer Measurements and angle modifications:

Theodolite: -telescope, laser-interferometer; -quote measurements and leves difference; -levelment instruments ,, microlevel, hydrostatic level,GPS; -electrical measuring instruments (transducers)

Measuring inclines: -interferometry ,electronic level, inclinometer Measurement stretches, variations of lengths:
-measuring tapes

Measuring the shape and position space:


- industrial photogrammetry, GPS, static coordinate measuring instruments

GROUP 3212A
PAVEL FLORIN 2. AMBROSIE MARIAN 3. STEFAN MARIA 4. BOTEZ ALIN 5. POSTOLACHI JUSTIN 6. ROMAN ROBERT 7. NECULAI ALICE 8. FILIP ALEXANDRU 9. ZAKHEM CHADI 10. DIACONU DENIS 11. CIUNTUC MARIUS 12. GHEUCA MIHAITA
1.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
WWW.CE.TUIASI.RO
WWW.WIKIPEDIA.ORG Topographic course- s.l. dr. ing. Covatariu dan Topografie Lucrari practice, Gheorghe Nistor, Universitatea Tehnica Gh. Asachi Iasi, 2001

WWW.ENGINEERSUPPLY.COM
WWW.LANDSURVEYER.US WWW.TPUB.COM WWW.SURVEYEQUIPMENT.COM