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Section 3.1 Development of the Periodic Table

Section 3.2

Using the Periodic Table

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Development of the Periodic Table
• Outline the steps in the historical development of the periodic table. • Predict similarities in properties of the elements by using the periodic table.

Development of the Periodic Table
electron cloud: space around the nucleus of an atom where the atom’s electrons are found

Development of the Periodic Table
periodicity periodic law

The periodic table evolved over time as scientists discovered more useful ways to compare and organize the elements.

organizing them according to their atomic mass.The Search for a Periodic Table • Early scientists needed a system that would show similarities and differences between individual and groups of elements. • J.W. . Döbereiner classified some elements that had similar chemical properties into triads.

The Search for a Periodic Table (cont.) .

• Density. melting point.) • Dmitri Mendeleev’s research revealed that the chemical and physical properties of the elements repeated in an orderly way when he organized the elements according to increasing atomic mass. and boiling point all increase as atomic mass increases. .The Search for a Periodic Table (cont.

) .The Search for a Periodic Table (cont.

The Search for a Periodic Table (cont.) • By applying his theory of periodicity. Mendeleev was able to predict properties of elements that had not yet been discovered. • Minilab – page 87 . or the tendency to recur at regular intervals.

The Search for a Periodic Table (cont.) .

which resulted in the structure of the modern periodic table.The Search for a Periodic Table (cont. • Alien PT .) • Henry Mosley proposed rearranging the elements according to their atomic number.

) .The Search for a Periodic Table (cont.

The Modern Periodic Table • Each block of the modern periodic table shows the element’s name. atomic number. • Atomic number increases by one as you move from element to element across a row. symbol. elements up to atomic number 118 have been discovered or synthesized. . • At present. and atomic mass.

• The idea that the physical and chemical properties of the elements repeat in a regular pattern when they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number is known as the periodic law. each row begins with a metal and ends with a noble gas. 3.) • With the exception of the first row.The Modern Periodic Table (cont.2 Assessment # 1. • Section 3. 4 .

Section Assessment The return of the full moon every 28 days is an example of ___. periodic law . phases B. frequency D. A. periodicity C.

1 B.Section Assessment The most unreactive elements are found in which group? A. 17 D. 2 C. 18 .

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• Use the periodic table to classify an element as a metal. nonmetal. . • Compare the properties of metals.Using the Periodic Table • Relate an element’s valence electron structure to its position in the periodic table. and metalloids. nonmetals. or metalloid.

Using the Periodic Table periodicity: the tendency to recur at regular intervals .

.Using the Periodic Table period group lanthanide actinide noble gas metal transition element nonmetal metalloid semiconductor Elements are organized in the periodic table according to their electron configurations.

.Relationship of the Periodic Table to Atomic Structure • Elements are organized in the periodic table according to their electron configurations.

consists of elements in a vertical column of the periodic table. • A group. . or family.Periods and Groups • A period is a horizontal row on the periodic table.

. • The period number of an element is the same as the number of its outermost energy level. are known as the noble gases.Periods and Groups (cont.) • Group 18 elements. which have the maximum number of eight valence electrons and are generally unreactive.

) • The number of valence electrons changes from one to eight as you move from left to right across a period.Periods and Groups (cont. when you get to group 18. . the pattern repeats.

Periods and Groups (cont.) • Because elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons. they have similar properties. .

Periods and Groups (cont.) • Common names for some groups – alkali metals in group 1 – alkaline earth metals in group 2 – halogens in group 17 – noble gases in group 18 .

. • Synthetic elements are not found in nature but are produced artificially in particle accelerators.Physical States and Classes of the Elements • Most elements are solid at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure.

. or nonmetals on the basis of their physical and chemical properties. metalloids.Physical States and Classes of the Elements (cont.) • Elements are classified as metals.

. metals have one. and usually bend without breaking. – The majority of elements are metals. conduct heat and electricity.Physical States and Classes of the Elements (cont. two.) • Metals are elements that have luster. – With the exception of tin. – Most metals are solid at room temperature and have extremely high melting points. or three valence electrons. and bismuth. lead.

) • The metals in groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table are called the transition elements. • The unpredictable behavior and properties of the transition metals is due to the more complicated atomic structure of these elements. .Physical States and Classes of the Elements (cont.

.Physical States and Classes of the Elements (cont.) • The transition elements are divided into transition metals and inner transition metals. • The two sets of inner transition metals are called the lanthanide series and actinide series and are located at the bottom of the periodic table.

and poor conductors of heat and electricity.Physical States and Classes of the Elements (cont. . dull-looking solids.) • Nonmetals are elements that are generally gases or brittle.

or an element that does not conduct electricity as well as a metal but does conduct slightly better than a nonmetal. such as silicon and germanium. . • Some metalloids are semiconductors.) • Metalloids have physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals.Physical States and Classes of the Elements (cont.

Physical States and Classes of the Elements (cont. . metals tend to lose valence electrons. whereas nonmetals tend to share electrons or gain electrons from other atoms.) • When undergoing chemical reactions.

.Semiconductors and Their Uses • Most metals conduct an electric current because their valence electrons are not held tightly by the positive nucleus and are free to move.

– n-type semiconductor – p-type semiconductor .Semiconductors and Their Uses (cont.) • The electrical conductivity of a semiconductor such as silicon can be increased by a process known as doping—the addition of a small amount of another element to a crystal of a semiconductor.

Semiconductors and Their Uses (cont.) .

diodes. and other semiconductors are incorporated into thin slices of silicon to form integrated circuits and are widely used in the development of technology. • Transistors.) • Many semiconductors are made by combining n.2 Assessment # 5.and p-type semiconductors to form a diode. 8 . 7.Semiconductors and Their Uses (cont. • Section 3.

All .• Chapter 3 Assessment – Page 113-114 #10-14. 36. 22. 28-31. 24-25. 38-39 – Page 115 .

eight D.Section Assessment An element with a full octet has how many valence electrons? A. ten . six C. two B.

Section Assessment The actinide series is part of the: A. inner transition metals C. s-block elements B. alkali metals . nonmetals D.

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Chemistry Online Study Guide Chapter Assessment Standardized Test Practice Image Bank Concepts in Motion .

• The modern periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements repeat in a regular pattern when they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. Mendeleev organized the elements according to increasing atomic mass and placed elements with similar properties into groups.Key Concepts • In his periodic table. .

Key Concepts • Atomic structure and the number of valence electrons can be related to an element’s position on the periodic table. • The number of valence electrons and how tightly they are held determine the chemical properties of an element. nonmetals. • Elements are classified as metals. • The conductivity of semiconductors can be increased by adding small amounts of other elements. . or metalloids.

Mendeleev C. Döbereiner B. Curie .Which chemist used triads to organize elements? A. Moseley D.

proton C. electron B. atomic . A.Elements are organized in the periodic table according to their ___ configurations. neutron D.

transition . period C. group D.What is a row of elements on the periodic table called? A. octave B.

At room temperature and in normal atmospheric pressure. most elements are ___. liquids C. A. solids . gases B.

splitting electrons C. splitting neutrons . nuclear reactions B.By which method are synthetic elements created? A. chemical reactions D.

metals . A.The majority of elements are ___. nonmetals D. synthetic B. metalloids C.

Which element is a transition element? A. zinc C. nickel B. lead . tin D.

noble gases D.Which elements are sometimes called the rare earth elements? A. metalloids . actinides B. lanthanides C.

inner transition metals C. noble gases . alkali metals B. halogens D.Which group of elements are the least reactive? A.

metalloid D. inner transition metal . metal B. nonmetal C.What is silicon an example of? A.

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