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COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Lecture # 3
Course Title : Electrical Circuit Analysis 1(EEE121) Course Instructor: Syed Usama Yunas Office: Room 24, Department of Electrical Engineering Contact email: usamayunas@ciit-attock.edu.pk

Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Two elements connected at a single node are actually connected in series. Elements connected in series have same current. For example,

According to Kirchhoff's current law it can be proved that same current is passing through each node. Therefore,

Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

So if same current say is following through the circuit, we can replace the previous currents with the following,

To find , we will use the Kirchhoffs voltage law,

All the resistors can be replaced by a single equivalent resistor, so we can write,
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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Combining values will give,

Equivalent circuit can be drawn as,

Generally if we have k resistors connected in series. The equivalent resistance can be written as, Resistance of the equivalent resistor is always larger than the largest resistor in series connection.
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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Two elements connected at a single node pair are actually connected in parallel. Elements connected in parallel have same voltage across their terminals. For example,

According to Kirchhoffs current law, In parallel connection voltage across each resistor will remain the same. So 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 =
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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

From ohms law,

Therefore,

Substituting the above values,

Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

All the resistors in parallel can be replaced by a single equivalent resistor, so we can write Equivalent circuit can be drawn as,

Generally if we have k resistors connected in parallel. The equivalent resistance can be written as, Resistance of the equivalent resistor is always smaller than the smallest resistor in parallel connection.
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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

In case of two resistors connected in parallel, we have

Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Find , 1 and 2 in the following circuit;

1 2

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

In case of resistors connected in series, we have voltage divided across resistors and such circuits are called voltage divider circuits. For example,

In order to find the individual voltages we can use the ohms law, Applying Kirchhoff's voltage law the loop to find current in the loop so we get
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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Solving will give,

Therefore

Both equations are the fractions of , each fraction is the ratio of the resistance across the divided voltage to the equivalent resistances in series.

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

In case of load resistor,

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Example 2:

Find using voltage divider formula.

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

In case of resistors connected in parallel, we have current divided across resistors and such circuits are called current divider circuits. For example,

In order to find the individual currents we can use the ohms law, v = 1 1 v = 2 2 1 = v/1 2 = v/2 Analysing above circuit we can write,

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Solving will give,

Each current through each resistor is the ratio of the current entering the parallel pair resistor multiplied by the other resistance to the sum of all resistors.

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Example 3:

Find current across 16 resistor using current divider formula.

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COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Wheatstone bridge is used to accurately calculate medium resistance values in the range of 1 to 1M. The circuit consists of four resistors, dc voltage and a detector. Wheatstone bridge is shown as,

where 1 , 2 , 3 are the known resistances and is the unknown resistance.


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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

In order to calculate the value of , we will adjust 3 until there is no current in detector. For the unknown resistance we can write, When = 0, that mean the bridge is balanced. Using Kirchhoff's current law,

Using Kirchhoff's voltage law,

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Further solving,

or

Here we can see if 1 /2 equals unity, then the unknown resistance equals 3 the known resistance. So if is 1000 and 3 is from 0 to 100 (including 1 =2 or 2 /1 equals unity), the circuit would be unstable. In order to make this circuit stable we need to adjust the ratio 2 /1 .

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Example 4:

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Delta Interconnection: Delta or Pi interconnection can be seen,

Individual resistances can be calculated using Kirchhoff's voltage law,

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Wye Interconnection: Wye or Tee interconnection can be seen,

Individual resistances can be calculated as, = + = + = +

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

We can combine both sets of equations as,

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Delta to Wye conversion: Following set of equations can be obtained to convert delta circuit into Wye circuit,

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Wye to Delta conversion: Following set of equations can be obtained to convert Wye circuit into delta circuit,

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Copyrights Syed Usama Yunas , Faculty Member Electrical Engineering Department

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock Campus

Example 5:

Find the current and power supplied by the 40V source in the above circuit.

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