Objectives

Identify culture of individual. Identify culture diversity. Identify organization of culture . Know types of culture. Identify the change agent. Explain the forces influence change. recognize the strategies which effecting change.

Identify types of change.
Define the concept of change. Explain process of change by lewin theory.

Values

Attitude

Perceptions

Cultural of individual

Cognitive style

Roles

Culture of individual:
The cultural of individual includes the individual’s values, attitudes, perceptions, interpersonal needs, roles and cognitive style. It is helpful to understand collective and expert culture. Collective Cultural
Is highly affiliative staff that can embrace the mission, values, and vision statement of the organization.

Expert Cultural
Are motivated by feeling of accomplishment and power instead of affiliation.

Values Basic convictions and beliefs about what is desirable or important .

It is a foundation of attitude, perception and roles.
They are stable and enduring and the influence decisions.

Attitudes
Mental states of readiness that are organized by experience and influences on a person’s response to the people, objects, and situation to which they are related. Attitudes are learned from parents, teacher and peers. But attitude less stable than values. They influence decision and behavior. Tolerance of ambiguity the ability to process information is affected by one’s attitude toward change. It refers to the degree to which person is threatened by unexpected situation.

Perceptions
Psychological process that makes sense out of what the individual sees, hears, smells, tastes, or feels. It is affected by previous experience, thus people may perceive the same situation differently. Perception involve receiving, organizing and interpreting.
Selective perception means that people select information that supports their viewpoints. A stereotype is a judgment made about people according to their gender, ethnic background . A self-fulfilling occurs when people expect certain behavior, use selective perception to see this behavior.

Interpersonal Needs
Interpersonal orientation are not actual behaviors but rather are the tendencies to behave in certain ways.

People need people and tent to seek compatible relationship with other in social situation.
There are at least Three basic needs:
• Inclusion is the need to include or be included by others.
• Control is the need to balance influence and power in relationship. • Affection is the need for intimacy to be close with others.

Cognitive style
People gather and process information differently. Myers-Briggs type indicator is a method for performing selfexamination to understand the strength and weaknesses in a person. It has four dimension of psychological type each of the four dimension has two categories.
Dimensions 1- attitude toward life. 2- Perceptual function. 3- Judgment function. 4- Orientation to the outer world. Sensing Thinking Judging Contrasting Categories Introversion Extroversion Intuiting Feeling Perceiving

Roles
Are acts or behaviors expected of a person who occupies a given social position .

Position are location in social system, such as nurse or teacher.

cultural Diversity
It is a state of being different and having variety. It is affected by internal factor include age, gender, race and external factor include education work experience , income, religion, martial state. Multiculturalism refer to the several different cultures. Monoculturalism which is prescribed cultural homogeneity. Cross-culturalism refers to mediating between cultures. Transculturalism mean bridging significant differences in cultural practices.

Cultural difference are common in several area, including:

 Values and norms.  Beliefs and attitudes.  Mental processes and learning style.  Sense of self and space.  Relationship with family and friends

 Time and time consciousness.  Communication and language.  Food and eating habits.  Dress and appearance.

 Work habits and practices

Management of cultural Diversity
The leader or manager needs to help staff deal with cultural diversity through awareness building, discrimination control, and prejudice reduction.

Orientation programs, seminar, role playing, skill building and workshops can be used to solve diversity problem and make awareness building.
All managers should participate in discrimination control by open discussion between representatives of conflicting groups that may minimize discrimination. prejudice reduction is more difficult than awareness building and discrimination control because it is an internal and abstract perception.

Organizational culture is the customary way of thinking and behaving that is shared by all members of the organization and must be learned and adopted by newcomers before they can be accepted into the organization.

Type of culture
Schneider classification
Collaborative
Competence

Control

Cultivation

Culture

Type of culture
Cook and Rousseau classification
Passive-defensive

Positive
Culture

Aggressivedefensive

What is change?
change can be defined as an attempt to alter or replace existing knowledge, skills, attitudes, norms and styles of individuals and groups.

Who make changes?

Change agent which can be defined as: a person who leads change within the organization, by championing the change, and managing and planning its implementation. The role can be official or voluntary; must be representative of the user population, understand the reasoning behind the change, and help to communicate the excitement, possibilities, and details of the change to others within the organization.

Changes can be:

 Planned.  Unplanned.
What is the different?

Forces That Influence change:
Internal forces.
Originate from operation inside the organization which may result from external changes. Include: change in priorities, need for increased productivity, staffing pattern changes and work process changes.

External forces.
Include: health care economics, technology, and changing demographics.

Strategies for effecting change:
Empirical-rational strategies:
Are based on the assumption that people are rational and behave according to rational self-interest. It follows then that people should be willing to adapt a change if it is justified.

Strategies for effecting change (cont.)
Normative-reeducative strategies:
are based on the assumption that people act according to their commitment to sociocultural norms.

Strategies for effecting change (cont.)
Power-coercive strategies:
This strategies seek to obtain the compliance of less powerful people with the leadership, plans, and directions of more powerful individuals.

Types of change:
Coercive change Emulative change Technocratic change Types of change

Indoctrination change interactional change

Social change

Natural change

 in coercive change there is nonmutual goal setting, an imbalances power ratio, and one-sided deliberativeness.  in emulative change, transition is fostered by promoting identification with and imitation of power figures.

 indoctrination uses mutual goal setting, has an imbalanced power ratio, and is deliberative. subordinates are instructed in the beliefs of the power sources.  interactional change involves mutual goal setting and fairly equal power, but no deliberativeness. parties may be unconsciously committed to changing one another.

 natural change occurs through accidents and acts of god. it involves no goal setting or deliberativeness .

 social change is directly related to interactional change. in this case, an individual conforms to the needs of a social group. when there is greater deliberativeness on the power side, change become indoctrination.
 technocratic change involves collecting and interpreting data to bring about change. a technocrat merely reports the findings of the analysis to bring about the change.

Process of change
Lewin: phases of change:
1. Unfreezing.

2. Moving.
3. Refreezing.

Unfreezing:
• Is the development through problem awareness of a need for change.
• Cognitive process. • What are the steps to do this phase?

Moving:
• Is working toward change by identifying the problem or the need for change, exploring the alternatives, defining goals and objectives, planning how to accomplish the goals, and implementing the plan for change.

Refreezing:
• Is the integration of the change into one’s personality and the consequent stabilization of change.
• Change agent in this phase will support others so that the change remain on place.

Lewins force-field analysis
Is provides a framework for problem solving and planned change. If the driving forces equal the restraining forces, equilibrium in the change situation will occur.

Driving forces
 Promote the change.
 Pressure from …….?  Desire to please the manager.  Perception that change will improve ones self image and belief that the change improve the situation.

 All these will push participants in desired direction.

Restraining forces:
 Inhibit the change.
 conformity to norms, moral, and ethics, desire for security, perception of economic threat or threat to one's prestige and homeostasis, and regulatory mechanisms for keeping the situation fairly constant.  All these will push participants in opposite direction.

Strategies for reducing the restraining forces and strengthening the driving forces:
Conduct some experiential learning exercises to facilitate the change of group norms.
Explain each person’s role in the change with emphasis on security. Provide some status symbols to reduce the threat to people’s prestige. Help workers identify how the change will improve their situation. Steps should be taken to improve self-image.

 Tomey (2009) Guide to nursing management and leadership  Dddddd  Dddddd  Dddddd

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