Presented by: Sowmya Puranam(E-457) Dipali Sadafule(E-459) Neety Sharma(E-461) Shruthi Shetty( E-463





They are frequently used as "pilot" lights in electronic appliances to indicate whether the circuit is closed or not. 3 .  LEDs convert electrical energy into light energy. LED is essentially a PN junction opto-semiconductor that emits a monochromatic (single color) light when operated in a forward biased direction.

   The chip has two regions separated by a junction. light is generated and passes through an opening or lens. The junction acts as a barrier to the flow of electrons between the p and the n regions. The p region is dominated by positive electric charges. Instead of generating heat at the PN junction. 4 . and the n region is dominated by negative electric charges.

 When a voltage is applied and the current starts to flow. electric potential energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. a quantum of electromagnetic energy is emitted in the form of a photon of light with a frequency characteristic of the semi-conductor material (usually a combination of the chemical elements gallium.   5 . arsenic and phosphorus). electrons in the n region have sufficient energy to move across the junction into the p region. For each recombination of a negative and a positive charge. Each time an electron recombines with a positive charge.

The energy (E) of the light emitted by an LED is related to the electric charge (q) of an electron and the voltage (V) required to light the LED by the expression: E = qV Joules. -1. as well as to LED's.6 x 10-19 Coulomb. The constant q is the electric charge of a single electron. This expression simply says that the voltage is proportional to the electric energy. 6 6 . and is a general statement which applies to any circuit.

Single and Double hetrojunction(double-hetrostructure). LED configuration: Homojunction. Optical confinement: preventing absorption of emitted radiation. 7 .   Carrier confinement: Used to achieve high radiance which yields high quantum efficiency.

 Homojunction = a p-n junction made out of two differently doped semiconductors that are of the same material (i.e having the same band gap). structure is   8 . Heterojunction = junction formed between two different band gaps semiconductors. The most effective of this double-hetrostructure device.

The two basic configuration of LED :  Surface emitter(Burrus or front emitter):      Plane of active light emitting region is perpendicular to axis of fiber. 9 . In this the source is equally bright from all directions but power diminishes as a cosθ. Emission is isotropic pattern(120 half beam width) called as lambertian pattern.5 μm thick. Active area dimensions: 50 μm diameter. upto 2.

Fiber Optics Epoxy Metal contact n AlGaAs p GaAs (active region) p Al GaAs n+ GaAs Metal contact 10 .

 Edge Emitter:  In edge emitter a double heterostructure band gap engineering is used to achieve carrier confinement and recombination in an active layer but in addition layers of relatively low refractive index are included to produce optical guide. pattern is more directional than surface emitters.  Emission 11 .

GaAlAs N GaAlAs Active layer n.GaAlAs P GaAlAs P+ GaAlAs n.Metal contact GaAs(n) substrate N+.GaAlAs Metal contact Light emits from the edge 12 .

13 . In a direct band gap. For operation in 800-900nm spectrum ythe principle material used is GaAs1-xPx. Semiconductor material used for active layer is must have a direct band gap.electrons and holes recombine directly without the use of third particle to conserve momentim.    The semiconductor bandgap energy defines the energy of the emitted photons in a LED.

14 . In the ternary alloy Ga1-xAlx As x is ratio of AlAs to GaAs determines the band gap of alloy and the wavelength of peak emitted radiation.

 drive signal vary the light output level. Three factors which determine the response time :1) doping level in the active region 2) The injected carrier lifetime in the recombination region 3) Parasitic capacitance of the led Response time or Frequency response: -The optical source indicate how fast an electrical i/p .

.has dropped to half its constant value resulting from modulated portion of the optical signal. designated by p(w). Modulation bandwidth :It is the point where the electrical signal power.

which is given by Ratio(optical)=10log[p(ω)/p(0)] =10log[I(ω)/I(0)] .then 3-db bandwidth is determined from the ratio of the optical power at frequency ω to the unmodulated value of the optical power.  The ratio of t he output electrical power at the frequency ω to the power at zero modulation is Ratio(elec)=10log[p(ω)/p(0)] =10log[I^2(ω)/I^2(0)] When P(ω)=Po/2.


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Beijing-Barco 21 .3rd Ring Road.

Daktronics Time Square 22 .

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