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Receiver Design:
Demodulation
Matched Filter
Correlator Receiver
Detection
Max. Likelihood Detector
Probability of Error
Transmit and Receive Formatting
Sources of Error in received Signal
Major sources of errors:
Thermal noise (AWGN)
disturbs the signal in an additive fashion (Additive)
has flat spectral density for all frequencies of interest (White)
is modeled by Gaussian random process (Gaussian Noise)
InterSymbol Interference (ISI)
Due to the filtering effect of transmitter, channel and receiver,
symbols are “smeared”.
FREQUENCY
DOWN
CONVERSION TRANSMITTED
WAVEFORM
AWGN
RECEIVED
WAVEFORM
RECEIVING
FILTER
EQUALIZING
FILTER THRESHOLD
COMPARISON
FOR
BANDPASS
SIGNALS
COMPENSATION
FOR CHANNEL
INDUCED ISI
DEMODULATE & SAMPLE
SAMPLE
at t = T
DETECT
MESSAGE
SYMBOL
OR
CHANNEL
SYMBOL
ESSENTIAL
OPTIONAL
Demodulation/Detection of digital signals
Receiver Structure
Receiver Structure contd
The digital receiver performs two basic functions:
Demodulation
Detection
Why demodulate a baseband signal???
Channel and the transmitter’s filter causes ISI which
“smears” the transmitted pulses
Required to recover a waveform to be sampled at t = nT.
Detection
decisionmaking process of selecting possible digital symbol
Important Observation
Detection process for bandpass signals is similar to that
of baseband signals. WHY???
Received signal for bandpass signals is converted to
baseband before detecting
Bandpass signals are heterodyned to baseband signals
Heterodyning refers to the process of frequency conversion
or mixing that yields a spectral shift in frequency.
For linear system mathematics for detection remains
same even with the shift in frequency
Steps in designing the receiver
Find optimum solution for receiver design with the following
goals:
1. Maximize SNR
2. Minimize ISI
Steps in design:
Model the received signal
Find separate solutions for each of the goals.
Detection of Binary Signal in Gaussian Noise
The recovery of signal at the receiver consist of two parts
Filter
Reduces the received signal to a single variable z(T)
z(T) is called the test statistics
Detector (or decision circuit)
Compares the z(T) to some threshold level ¸
0
, i.e.,
where H
1
and H
0
are the two
possible binary hypothesis
0
) (
0
1
¸
H
H
T z
<
>
Receiver Functionality
The recovery of signal at the receiver consist of two parts:
1. Waveformtosample transformation
Demodulator followed by a sampler
At the end of each symbol duration T, predetection point yields a sample
z(T), called test statistic
Where a
i
(T) is the desired signal component,
and n
o
(T) is the noise component
2. Detection of symbol
Assume that input noise is a Gaussian random process and receiving filter
is linear
2 , 1 ) ( ) ( ) (
0
= + = i t n t a T z
i
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷ =
2
0
0
0
0
2
1
exp
2
1
) (
o
t o
n
n p
Finding optimized filter
for AWGN channel
Assuming Channel with response equal to
impulse function
Detection of Binary Signal in Gaussian Noise
For any binary channel, the transmitted signal over a symbol interval
(0,T) is:
The received signal r(t) degraded by noise n(t) and possibly degraded
by the impulse response of the channel h
c
(t), is
Where n(t) is assumed to be zero mean AWGN process
For ideal distortionless channel where h
c
(t) is an impulse function and
convolution with h
c
(t) produces no degradation, r(t) can be
represented as:
¹
´
¦
s s
s s
=
1 0 ) (
0 0 ) (
) (
1
0
binary a f or T t t s
binary a f or T t t s
t s
i
2 , 1 ) ( ) ( * ) ( ) ( = + = i t n t h t s t r
c i
T t i t n t s t r
i
s s = + = 0 2 , 1 ) ( ) ( ) (
Design the receiver filter to maximize the SNR
Model the received signal
Simplify the model:
Received signal in AWGN
) (t h
c
) (t s
i
) (t n
) (t r
) (t n
) (t r
) (t s
i
Ideal channels
) ( ) ( t t h
c
o =
AWGN
AWGN
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t n t h t s t r
c i
+  =
) ( ) ( ) ( t n t s t r
i
+ =
Find Filter Transfer Function H
0
(f)
Objective: To maximizes (S/N)
T
and find h(t)
Expressing signal a
i
(t) at filter output in terms of filter transfer function H(f)
where H(f) is the filter transfer funtion and S(f) is the Fourier transform of input signal s(t)
If the two sided PSD of i/p noise is N
0
/2
Output noise power can be expressed as:
Expressing (S/N)
T
:
df e f S f H t a
ft j
i
}
·
· ÷
=
t 2
) ( ) ( ) (
}
·
· ÷
= df f H
N
2
0
2
0
 ) ( 
2
o
}
}
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
=

.

\

df f H
N
df e f S f H
N
S
fT j
T
2
0
2
2
 ) ( 
2
) ( ) (
t
For H(f) = H
opt
(f) to maximize (S/N)
T
use Schwarz’s Inequality:
Equality holds if f
1
(x) = k f*
2
(x) where k is arbitrary constant and * indicates
complex conjugate
Associate H(f) with f
1
(x) and S(f) e
j2t fT
with f
2
(x) to get:
Substitute yields to:
df f S df f H df e f S f H
fT j
2 2
2
2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
} } }
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
s
t
dx x f dx x f dx x f x f
2
2
2
1
2
2 1
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
} } }
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
s
df f S
N N
S
T
2
0
) (
2
}
·
· ÷
s

.

\

Or and energy E of the input signal s(t):
Thus (S/N)
T
depends on input signal energy
and power spectral density of noise and
NOT on the particular shape of the waveform
Equality for holds for optimum filter
transfer function H
0
(f)
such that:
(3.55)
For real valued s(t):
0
2
max
N
E
N
S
T
s

.

\

df f S E
2
) (
}
·
· ÷
=
0
2
max
N
E
N
S
T
s

.

\

fT j
e f kS f H f H
t 2
0
) ( * ) ( ) (
÷
= =
{ }
fT j
e f kS t h
t 2 1
) ( * ) (
÷ ÷
· =
¹
´
¦
s s ÷
=
where else
T t t T kS
t h
0
0 ) (
) (
The impulse response of a filter producing maximum output
signaltonoise ratio is the mirror image of message signal s(t),
delayed by symbol time duration T.
The filter designed is called a MATCHED FILTER
Defined as:
a linear filter designed to provide the maximum
signaltonoise power ratio at its output for a given
transmitted symbol waveform
¹
´
¦
s s ÷
=
where else
T t t T kS
t h
0
0 ) (
) (
Matched Filter Output of a rectangular
Pulse
Replacing Matched filter with Integrator
A filter that is matched to the waveform s(t), has an impulse response
h(t) is a delayed version of the mirror image (rotated on the t = 0 axis) of
the original signal waveform
¹
´
¦
s s ÷
=
where else
T t t T kS
t h
0
0 ) (
) (
Signal Waveform
Mirror image of signal
waveform
Impulse response of
matched filter
Correlation realization of Matched filter
Correlator Receiver
This is a causal system
a system is causal if before an excitation is applied at time t = T, the response is
zero for  · < t < T
The signal waveform at the output of the matched filter is
Substituting h(t) to yield:
When t=T
So the product integration of rxd signal with replica of transmitted waveform s(t) over one symbol interval is
called Correlation
t t t d t h r t h t r t z
t
) ( ) ( ) ( * ) ( ) (
0
÷ = =
}
 
  t t t
t t t
d t T s r
d t T s r t z
t
t
+ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
}
}
0
0
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t t t d s r t z
T
) ( ) ( ) (
0
}
=
Correlator versus Matched Filter
The functions of the correlator and matched filter
The mathematical operation of Correlator is correlation, where a signal is correlated
with its replica
Whereas the operation of Matched filter is Convolution, where signal is convolved
with filter impulse response
But the o/p of both is same at t=T so the functions of correlator and matched filter is
same.
Matched Filter
Correlator
Implementation of matched filter
receiver
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
M
z
z
1
z =
) (t r
) (
1
T z
) (
*
1
t T s ÷
) (
*
t T s
M
÷
) (T z
M
z
Bank of M matched filters
Matched filter output:
Observation
vector
) ( ) ( t T s t r z i
i
÷  =

M i ,..., 1 =
) ,..., , ( )) ( ),..., ( ), ( (
2 1 2 1 M M
z z z T z T z T z = = z
Implementation of correlator
receiver
dt t s t r z
i
T
i
) ( ) (
0
}
=
}
T
0
) ( 1 t s

}
T
0
) (t s M

(
(
(
¸
(
¸
M
z
z
1
z =
) (t r
) (
1
T z
) (T z
M
z
Bank of M correlators
Correlators output:
Observation
vector
) ,..., , ( )) ( ),..., ( ), ( (
2 1 2 1 M M
z z z T z T z T z = = z
M i ,..., 1 =
Example of implementation of
matched filter receivers
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
2
1
z
z
z =
) (t r
) (
1
T z
) (
2
T z
z
Bank of 2 matched filters
T t
) (
1
t s
T t
) (
2
t s
T
T 0
0
T
A
T
A ÷
T
A ÷
T
A
0
0
Detection
Max. Likelihood Detector
Probability of Error
Detection
Matched filter reduces the received signal to a single variable z(T), after which the detection
of symbol is carried out
The concept of maximum likelihood detector is based on Statistical Decision
Theory
It allows us to
formulate the decision rule that operates on the data
optimize the detection criterion
0
) (
0
1
¸
H
H
T z
<
>
P[s
0
], P[s
1
] ÷ a priori probabilities
These probabilities are known before transmission
P[z]
probability of the received sample
p(zs
0
), p(zs
1
)
conditional pdf of received signal z, conditioned on the class s
i
P[s
0
z], P[s
1
z] ÷ a posteriori probabilities
After examining the sample, we make a refinement of our previous
knowledge
P[s
1
s
0
], P[s
0
s
1
]
wrong decision (error)
P[s
1
s
1
], P[s
0
s
0
]
correct decision
Probabilities Review
Maximum Likelihood Ratio test and Maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion:
If
else
Problem is that a posteriori probabilities are not known.
Solution: Use Bay’s theorem:
0 1 0
)  ( )  ( H z s p z s p > ÷ >
) ( )  ( ) ( )  (
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
0
1
0
1
) (
) ( )  (
) (
) ( )  (
s P s z p s P s z p
H
H
H
H
z P
s P s z p
z P
s P s z p
<
>
<
>
¬ ¬
How to Choose the threshold?
1 0 1
)  ( )  ( H z s p z s p > ÷ >
) (
) ( )  (
)  (
z p
i
s p
i
s z p
z
i
s p =
This means that if received signal is positive, s
1
(t) was sent, else
s
0
(t) was sent
1
Likelihood of S
o
and S
1
MAP criterion:
) (
) (
) (
)  (
)  (
) (
1
0
0
1
0
1
LRT test ratio likelihood
s P
s P
s z p
s z p
z L
H
H
:
<
>
A
When the two signals, s
0
(t) and s
1
(t), are equally likely, i.e., P(s
0
) = P(s
1
) = 0.5, then
the decision rule becomes
This is known as maximum likelihood ratio test because we are selecting
the hypothesis that corresponds to the signal with the maximum likelihood.
In terms of the Bayes criterion, it implies that the cost of both types of error is the
same
test ratio likelihood
H
H
s z p
s z p
z L max 1
)  (
)  (
) (
0
1
0
1
:
<
>
=
Substituting the pdfs
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷
÷ =
2
0
0
0
0 0
2
1
exp
2
1
)  ( :
o
t o
a z
s z p H
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷
÷ =
2
0
1
0
1 1
2
1
exp
2
1
)  ( :
o
t o
a z
s z p H
( )
( )
1
2
1
exp
2
1
2
1
exp
2
1
1
)  (
)  (
) (
0
1
2
0
2
0
0
2
1
2
0
0
1
0
1
H
H
a z
a z
H
H
s z p
s z p
z L
o
<
>
(
¸
(
¸
÷ ÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷ ÷
¬
<
>
=
o
t o
o
t o
0
2
) ( ) (
)} ( ln{
0
1
2
0
2
0
2
1
2
0
0 1
H
H
a a a a z
z L
<
>
÷
÷
÷
=
o o
2
0
0 1 0 1
2
0
2
0
2
1
0
1
2
0
0 1
2
) )( (
2
) ( ) (
o o o
a a a a a a
H
H
a a z ÷ +
=
÷
<
>
÷
¬
1
2
) ( ) (
exp
2
0
2
0
2
1
2
0
0 1
>
<
(
¸
( ÷
÷
÷
¸
o o
a a a a z
Hence:
Taking the log, both sides will give
Hence
where z is the minimum error criterion and ¸
0
is optimum threshold
For antipodal signal, s
1
(t) =  s
0
(t) ¬ a
1
=  a
0
) ( 2
) )( (
0 1
2
0
0 1 0 1
2
0
0
1
a a
a a a a
H
H
z
÷
÷ +
<
>
o
o
0
0 1
0
1
2
) (
¸ A
+
<
>
a a
H
H
z
0
0
1
H
H
z
<
>
Probability of Error
Error will occur if
s
1
is sent ÷ s
0
is received
s
0
is sent ÷ s
1
is received
The total probability of error is sum of the errors
dz s z p s e P
s e P s H P
}
· ÷
=
=
0
)  ( )  (
)  ( )  (
1 1
1 1 0
¸
dz s z p s e P
s e P s H P
}
·
=
=
0
)  ( )  (
)  ( )  (
0 0
0 0 1
¸
) ( )  ( ) ( )  (
) ( )  ( ) ( )  ( ) , (
0 0 1 1 1 0
0 0 1 1
2
1
s P s H P s P s H P
s P s e P s P s e P s e P P
i
i B
+ =
+ = =
¿
=
If signals are equally probable
Hence, the probability of bit error P
B
, is the probability that an incorrect
hypothesis is made
Numerically, P
B
is the area under the tail of either of the conditional
distributions p(zs
1
) or p(zs
0
)
  )  ( )  (
2
1
) ( )  ( ) ( )  (
0 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 1 0
s H P s H P
s P s H P s P s H P P
B
+ =
+ =
dz
a z
dz s z p dz s H P P
B
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷
÷ =
= =
}
} }
·
· ·
2
0
0
0
0 0 1
2
1
exp
2
1
)  ( )  (
0
0 0
o
t o
¸
¸ ¸
The above equation cannot be evaluated in closed form (Qfunction)
Hence,
du
u
dz du
dz
du
then
a z
u let
dz
a z
P
a a
B
(
¸
(
¸
÷ =
= ¬ =
÷
= ¬
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷
÷ =
}
}
·
÷
·
2
exp
2
1
1
2
1
exp
2
1
2
2
) (
0
0 0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0 1
0
o
¸
t
o
o o
o
t o


.

\

÷
=
0
0 1
2o
a a
Q P
B
Coerror function
Q(x) is called the complementary error function or
coerror function
Is commonly used symbol for probability
Another approximation for Q(x) for x>3 is as follows:
Q(x) is presented in a tabular form
Coerror Table
To minimize P
B,
we need to maximize:
or
Where (a
1
a
2
) is the difference of desired signal components at filter output at
t=T, and square of this difference signal is the instantaneous power of the
difference signal
i.e. Signal to Noise Ratio


.

\

=


.

\

=


.

\

=
0 0
2
2
2
1
2 N
E
Q
N
E
Q
SNR
Q P
d d
B
( )
2
0
2
0 1
o
a a ÷
0
0 1
2o
a a ÷
( )
0
0
2
0
2
0 1
2
2
N
E
N
E a a
N
S
d d
T
= =
÷
=

.

\

o
Imp. Observation
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