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My aim is to limit materials, simplify expression to the maximum, eliminate all non-essentials, and in the process interweave in my spaces the totality of the human being.”— Tadao Ando
“I was never a good student. I always preferred learning things on my own outside of class. When I was about 18, I started to visit temples, shrines and tea houses in Kyoto and nara; There's a lot of great traditional architecture in the area. I was studying architecture by going to see actual building, and reading books about them.”
Born on September 13, 1941, in minatoku, Osaka, Japan. from ages 10 to 17 Ando spent his time mostly making wood models of ships, airplanes, and moulds, learning the craft from a carpenter whose shop was across the street from his home.
Worked as a truck driver and boxer prior to settling in the profession of architecture, despite never having taken formal training in the field. Self educated in architecture , travelled to USA , Europe & Africa before establishing his office Tadao Ando Architects & Associates , in Osaka, in the year 1969.
Denmark -1995 pritzker architecture prize -1997 royal gold medal. . French academy of architecture -1992 Carlsberg architectural prize. royal institute of British architects.Works primarily in exposed cast-in-place concrete and is renowned for an exemplary craftsmanship which invokes a Japanese sense of materiality. junction and spatial narrative through the pared aesthetics of international modernism AWARDS -1979 the annual prize from the architectural institute of Japan -1985 5th alvar alto medal. Finnish association of architects -1989 gold medal.
Award Annual Prize (Row House. Sumiyoshi) Organization/ Country Year Location Architectural Japan Institute of Japan 1979 Cultural Design Prize (Rokko Housing One and Two) Alvar Alto Medal Tokyo Japan 1983 Gold Medal of Architecture Finnish Finland 1985 Association of Architects French Academy France 1989 of Architecture Copenhagen Denmar k Japan United States France 1992 Carlsberg Architectural Prize (International) Japan Art Academy Prize Pritzker Architecture Prize (International) Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Tokyo Chicago Paris 1993 1995 1995 .
Praemium Imperial First «FRATE SOLE” Award in Architecture Officier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Royal Gold Medal AIA Gold Medal Japan Art Association Paris RIBA Japan 1996 France 1997 Great 1997 Britain United 2002 States UIA Gold Medal Neutra Medal for Professional Excellence American Institute Of Architects International France 2005 Union of Architects Cal Poly United 2012 Pomona States College of Environmental Design .
ridicules the idea of masking it • Simplified . naked concrete walls that define the spaces within • Style. rectilinear forms and bare.Philosophy •Considered a patron of Minimalism but doesn’t compromises with the design • Pure space enveloped in concrete rectangular forms .pure space and simple form • The column has become merely a symbol that addresses culture and history • Extensive use of Concrete and glass in the pure form • Interior of the building are the form itself. Water through concrete and glass .element of Light.
Using these characteristics Ando’s work can be classified into three types: 1)Monistic works 2)Dualistic works 3)Pluralistic works Architecture refers to a box whose creation has two objectives. One objective is an ideal. Examination & analysis of these works yield to us their distinguishing characteristics. Its ambition is to awaken men’s sensibilities. .THE ARCHITECTURE OF TADAO ANDO Tadao Ando has created more than 150 works of architecture. the other an ambition . Architecture’s ideal is to form a model of the world.
the theme of Ando’s architectural expression. His monistic architecture was born from the spirit of social criticism & personal emotion. Natural phenomenon arising within the pure space enclosed by his beautiful walls receive concrete substance and stimulate our consciousness . inspiring us to abstract heights. . Anger & sorrow are . On the other hand . in this sense . Ando’s architecture displays primitive strength & craft precision. Ando manifested architectural will to pierce the superficial modern membrane covering Japanese society & declared an individual’s resolve to destroy the myth of group.Monistic work It can be defined as pure space enveloped in concrete rectangular forms– pure space & simple form .
Monistic architecture best exemplified byRow House. sumiyoshi (Azuma house) Church of light Chapel on Mount Rokko .
These spatial depths are created by its simple forms. Light & shadow impart movement to space .In these buildings . space has properties both of tranquility & intensity. Then suddenly there comes light. loosen its tension & endow geometric space with corporeality. . homogenous materials & monotone colors. The restraint in use of materials & the utter simplicity of the forms produce an austere mood & imbue space with tranquil tension. transforming pure space into dramatic space. Spatial intensity signifies the rule of tension & centripetal force over space & the visual & spiritual depth of space.
the path of the wind . Vanishing point of perspective & the traffic line When using a rectangular form or cube . Such geometric forms are both lucid & monotonous.Uses the direction of light.DESIGN STRATEGIES -Monistic reduction of pure spaces -simplified forms -negation of form (allowing architecture only in the simplest of form). . a centre is born& a centripetal vector arises . In order that simplicity does not degenerate to mediocrity . or sphere. the directionality of space is vital. Ando therefore employs division to convert simplicity to strength & tension.
DUALISTIC WORKS It comprises a territory of contemporary architecture that is entirely his own. Whereas in dualism . they condense simple outer form to an imagined central point Monistic works have a point of accumulation of force or an axis of force.e. .there is a clean division of the centre possessed by monistic works & strive to set up loss of centre through polarity. In the dualistic work Ando expresses the unresolved conflicts & contradiction of two terms in a visible architectural statement.i. Ando has conceived his dualistic architecture as an allegory based on geometry of ellipse. Dualistic space. divides the central point into two poles in an endeavor to produce unstable & fluid space. Whereas monistic works find expression in allegories base on circle or sphere .
Dualistic architecture best exemplified byKoshino House Time’s I & II Nara conventional Hall .
while composition denotes the horizontal development of geometry. DESIGN STRATEGIES -Dualism of plan & section translate . or the diffusive openness of the plan & the measured compactness of section. -Construction denotes the vertical development of gravity resistant order. whereas a section has human scale & reflects the character of concrete daily life. An abstract geometry claims the foremost role in plan . section & plan are inherently different in character & compose a dualism in themselves: A dualism in other words . of the abstractness of plan & the concreteness of section . . the geometry plan & natural curve of section .In Ando’s work . by means of columns & wall. into the context of construction & composition.
Forest of tombs museum . Osaka . Kumamoto Chikatsu Asuka historical museum.
flight & liberation.PLURALISTIC WORKS In these projects. Though low density in its distribution . -It is characterized in plan by multiple poles that are scattered & connected with -Long corridors.the architecture is arranged in sweeping configuration. This architecture style is distinguished by frequent use of curves & its variety of intersecting angles. typically sited on vast tracts of land . . that at times rises up to startle the surrounding while elsewhere subsiding into lush vegetation. escape. It is illuminated light weight & fast. -Produces space that is ruled not by attractive forces as in monism & dualism but by centrifugal force Pluralism architecture is an architecture of diffusion . the architecture sets up moments of spicy tension & inscribes orbits of diffusion & accumulation that are orchestrated to draw our awareness to tranquil scenery.
Pluralistic architecture best exemplified byNaoshima contemporary Art museum Nakanoshima project II Children’s museum . Hyogo .
If we were to analogize architecture of monism. dualism to ellipse & pluralism corresponds to a hyperbola or parabola. dualism & pluralism to allegories based on quadratic curves . . then whereas monism corresponds to a circle or a straight line .
III.PROJECTS-: Atelier in Oyodo . Kobe . II. Osaka Rokko Housing I.
Kobe Museum of Literature . Himeji .Rose Garden.
The Pulitzer Foundation for Arts Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Art . Kobe .
Church on water Chapel on Mt Rokko Church of light .
IMPORTANT PROJECTS .
and even a slight breeze would cause ripples. and a man-made pond 90x45 meters has been created. the area becomes a beautiful white expanse of land. The depth of the pond was carefully set so that the surface of the water would be subtle affected by the wind." Tadao Ando . Water has been diverted from a nearby river.CHURCH ON THE WATER "Covered in snow from December to April.
1988 Structural engineer:Ascoral Engineering Associates Building company: Obayashi Corporation Co. Japan Project: 09.Architect: Tadao Ando Committee: local government Location: Tomamu. Structure: Reinforced concrete Built area: 344.9 sqm Total area: 520 sqm .1988-09.1985-04.1988 Completion: 04. Hokkaido.
•After a hundred and eighty degree turn. go up a gently sloping path to reach an area of access to the Chapel is closed on four sides by glass. and in winter strips turned into a white expanse. •The chapel is entered from the back and along the path approaching the wall.•The chapel is placed on a mountain plateau central Hokkaido. •A wall independent. the visitor finds the view of the lake through the glass wall in front of the altar you can see the expanse of water and a large cross. and overlooks a pond made by diverting a stream that flows through the vicinity. . the coldest region in Japan. however. a kind of container of light. •In plan. is green from spring to summer. •The murmur of the water takes visitors along the way. that they see the lake. •Travelled to scale curve that leads to the chapel. •The entire area. without. L-shaped around the rear of the building and on one side of the pond. where nature is wild. the chapel is formed by the overlapping of two squares. one small and one large.
Plan North Elevation .
Section Interior View .
CHILDREN’S MUSEUM Architect: Tadao Ando Committee: local government Location: Hyogo. Japan Project: 1988 Completion:1989 Structure: Reinforced concrete Built area: 475sqm .
the museum is a cultural facility for artistic education of children. an exhibition gallery .9m high columns. -The intermediate plaza is a walled external space containing a grid of 16 . It is composed of two staggered volumes. The main museum is a multi-functional complex. one of which connects a fan shaped volume housing the theatres.Sited on a hill overlooking a broad lake . indoor & outdoor theatres. -The workshop complex consists of two storey workshop building. The facility consists of 3 parts -The main museum -An intermediate plaza -A work shop complex All connected by a long pathway marked by a series of walls which slice dramatically through the slope of the hill. . containing a library. square in plan & set within a plaza. -A series of man-made pools surround the museum. a multi-purpose hall & a restaurant.
Basement Plan Ground Floor Plan .
First Floor Plan Second Floor Plan .
Missouri Project: 1992 Completion: 2001 Structural: Eqe-Theiss Civil Engineer: Kuhlman Design Group. reinforced concrete Built area: 880 sqm .PULITZER FOUNDATION OF ARTS Architect: Tadao Ando Owner: Emily Rauh Pulitzer Location: St. Inc. Structure: cast-in-place. Louis. fine-finish.
" He says: "I see it as the creation of a space to inspire visitors and even expand their consciousness. -The main entrance to the building is situated along the north facade. where it is shielded from Washington Boulevard by a porch area. -Between the two wings is a reflecting pool. . I want to create a very stimulating place.“ -A cantilevered roof slab extends from the higher wing over the lower.Double glass doors. where works of art are not exhibited merely as specimens but also speak to us as living things.-It is a deceptively simple composition of space and light. . -Ando himself thinks of the building as a "place of possibility" or a "place of mutual discovery. Louis. -On the lower roof are a glass pavilion and roof garden. admit the visitor into a low foyer and gallery in the building's west wing. located off-axis. supported by a single column. -It was intended from the outset as both a serene setting for the contemplation of art and a contribution toward revitalizing the urban landscape of historic St.
perceived as longer than it really is because it is so narrow.Between the two wings of the PFA building is a reflecting pool. A torqued spiral sculpture by Richard Serra is named "Joe" South Main Gallery .
the reflecting pool in the middle of the building is not very long. almost the full length of the building. It is day lit through a band of windows that look onto the pool and west wing. A similar play of perception is involved in the asymmetry. or imbalance. "In the Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts. but you perceive it as long because the proportion is very narrow. . of the building. You perceive each part in relation to another.The principal gallery in the east wing provides an unbroken flow of space for 52 meters. I have tried to get the maximum effect from this kind of composition. Each part emphasizes what the other is”. For example.
3 meters) and length of 216 feet and 204 feet respectively. a library. External spaces such as the water court. and terraces facing them keep a continuity with the gallery inside. displaying its changing facets as time and seasons pass by. the rooftop garden. . arranged parallel to one another with a water court of the same width in between. The blank space caused by the difference of length of the volumes is roofed by deep eaves. and a roof top garden. The two volumes are different in height: the taller one encloses a double height (measuring 24 feet high) main gallery. and the lower one – having one level less than the former – accommodates the entrance hall. The indoor exhibition rooms adopt natural light to intensify the continuity with the outdoors. It serves as an entrance to the museum and a lounge linking the two volumes.The building consists of a set of two rectangular volumes having identical width of 24 feet (7. Both spaces are regarded as a place of modern art exhibition. various rooms for administration and research. It is expressed as a space that breathes into Nature.
First Floor Plan Model of PFA .
Conceptual Sketch .
Elevation Inside torqued Spiral structure “Joe” .
-Combining modern Western architecture and the simple geometric forms of traditional Japanese architecture. steel and glass are the materials that represent the 20th century and are available all over the world. “Concrete. is to create warm and rich human spaces. Ando has developed a unique mode of architectural expression infused with a sense of nature.CONCLUSION "An architect who explored the limits of humankind's relationship with nature through his original forms and structures“ -Using the medium of unfinished reinforced concrete. My aim always. I always seek new architectural possibilities that I can create with these universal materials. even while using materials that are usually considered cold or poor” .
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