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# UNIT-IV

INVERTERS
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Single-Phase Inverters
Half-Bridge Inverter

One of the simplest types of inverter. Produces a square wave output.

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Single-Phase Inverters
(cont’d)
Full Bridge (H-bridge) Inverter

Two half-bridge inverters combined.

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Single-Phase Inverters
(cont’d)
(forward motoring)
Q1-On; Q2 - Chopping; D3,Q1 freewheeling

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Single-Phase Inverters
(cont’d)
(forward regeneration)
Q4 - Chopping; D2,D1 freewheeling

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Single-Phase Inverters
(cont’d)
(reverse motoring)
Q3-On; Q4 - Chopping; D1,Q3 freewheeling

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Single-Phase Inverters
(cont’d)
(reverse regeneration)
Q2 - Chopping; D3,D4 freewheeling

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Single-Phase Inverters
(cont’d)
Phase-Shift Voltage Control - the output of
the H-bridge inverter can be controlled by
phase shifting the control of the
component half-bridges. See waveforms
on next slide.

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Single-Phase Inverters
(cont’d)
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Single-Phase Inverters
(cont’d)
The waveform of the output voltage v
ab
is a quasi-
square wave of pulse width |. The Fourier series of v
ab

is given by:

The value of the fundamental, a
1
=

The harmonic components as a function of phase
angle are shown in the next slide.
( )
1,3,5...
4
sin cos
2
d
ab
n
V n
v n t
n
|
e
t
=
(
| |
=
|
(
\ .
¸ ¸
¿
( )
4
sin / 2
d
V
|
t
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Single-Phase Inverters
(cont’d)

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge
Inverters
Three-phase bridge inverters are widely
used for ac motor drives. Two modes of
operation - square wave and six-step. The
topology is basically three half-bridge
inverters, each phase-shifted by 2t/3,
driving each of the phase windings.
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
The three square-wave phase voltages can
be expressed in terms of the dc supply
voltage, V
d
, by Fourier series as:
1
0
1,3,5...
2
( 1) cos( )
n
d
a
n
V
v n t e
t
+
=
= ÷
¿
1
0
1,3,5...
2 2
( 1) cos( )
3
n
d
b
n
V
v n t
t
e
t
+
=
= ÷ ÷
¿
1
0
1,3,5...
2 2
( 1) cos( )
3
n
d
c
n
V
v n t
t
e
t
+
=
= ÷ +
¿
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
The line voltages can then be expressed as:
0 0
1,3,5...
2 3
cos( / 2) cos( 2)
d
bc b c
n
V
v v v t n t e t e t
t
=
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷
¿
0 0
1,3,5...
2 3
cos( 5 / 6) cos( 5 6)
d
ca c a
n
V
v v v t n t e t e t
t
=
= ÷ = + ÷ ÷
¿
0 0
1,3,5...
2 3
cos( / 6) cos( 6)
d
ab a b
n
V
v v v t n t e t e t
t
=
= ÷ = + ÷ +
¿
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
The line voltages are six-step waveforms and
have characteristic harmonics of 6n±1,
where n is an integer. This type of inverter is
referred to as a six-step inverter.

The three-phase fundamental and harmonics
are balanced with a mutual phase shift of
2t/3.
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
If the three-phase load neutral n is isolated from the the
center tap of the dc voltage supply (as is normally the
case in an ac machine) the equivalent circuit is shown
below.

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
In this case the isolated neutral-phase
voltages are also six-step waveforms with
the fundamental component phase-shifted
by t/6 from that of the respective line
voltage. Also, in this case, the triplen
harmonics are suppressed.

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
For a linear and balanced 3u load, the line currents
are also balanced. The individual line current
components can be obtained from the Fourier series
of the line voltage. The total current can be obtained
by addition of the individual currents. A typical line
current wave with inductive load is shown below.

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
The inverter can operate in the usual inverting or
motoring mode. If the phase current wave, i
a
, is
assumed to be perfectly filtered and lags the phase
voltage by t/3 the voltage and current waveforms are
as shown below:

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
The inverter can also operate in rectification or regeneration
mode in which power is pushed back to the dc side from the ac
side. The waveforms corresponding to this mode of operation
with phase angle = 2t/3 are shown below:

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
The phase-shift voltage control principle
described earlier for the single-phase
inverter can be extended to control the
output voltage of a three-phase inverter.

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
The three waveforms v
a0
,v
b0
, and v
c0
are of
amplitude 0.5V
d
and are mutually phase-
shifted by 2t/3.

The three waveforms v
e0
,v
f0
, and v
g0
are of
similar but phase shifted by |.

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
The transformer’s secondary phase voltages,
v
A0
, v
B0
, and v
c0
may be expressed as follows:

where m is the transformer turns ratio
(= N
s
/N
p
). Note that each of these waves is a
function of | angle.
0 0 0
( )
v mv m v v = = ÷
0 0 0
( )
B be b e
v mv m v v = = ÷
0 0 0
( )
C cf c f
v mv m v v = = ÷
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
The output line voltages are given by:

While the component voltage waves v
a0
, v
d0
, v
A0
… etc. all
contain triplen harmonics, they are eliminated from the
line voltages because they are co-phasal. Thus the line
voltages are six-step waveforms with order of harmonics
= 6n±1 at a phase angle |.

0 0 AB A B
v v v = ÷
0 0 BC B C
v v v = ÷
0 0 CA C A
v v v = ÷
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
The Fourier series for v
A0
and v
B0
are given
by:

( )
0
1,3,5...
4
sin cos
2
d
A
n
mV n
v n t
n
|
e
t
=
(
| |
=
|
(
\ .
¸ ¸
¿
( )
0
1,3,5...
4
sin cos 2 / 3
2
d
B
n
mV n
v n t
n
|
e t
t
=
(
| |
= ÷
|
(
\ .
¸ ¸
¿
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Three-Phase Bridge Inverters
(cont’d)
The Fourier series for v
AB
is given by:

Note that the triplen harmonics are removed
in v
AB
although they are present in v
A0
and
v
B0
.
( )
1,5,7,11...
4 2
sin cos cos
2 3
d
n
mV n
n t n t
n
| t
e e
t
=
( (
| | | |
= ÷ ÷
| |
( (
\ . \ .
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¿
0 0 AB A B
v v v = ÷
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
PWM Technique
While the 3u 6-step inverter offers simple
control and low switching loss, lower order
harmonics are relatively high leading to high
distortion of the current wave (unless
significant filtering is performed).

PWM inverter offers better harmonic control
of the output than 6-step inverter.
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
PWM Principle
The dc input to the inverter is “chopped” by
switching devices in the inverter. The
amplitude and harmonic content of the ac
waveform is controlled by the duty cycle of
the switches. The fundamental voltage v
1

has max. amplitude = 4V
d
/t for a square
wave output but by creating notches, the
amplitude of v
1
is reduced (see next slide).
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
PWM Principle (cont’d)

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
PWM Techniques
Various PWM techniques, include:

• Sinusoidal PWM (most common)
• Selected Harmonic Elimination (SHE)
PWM
• Space-Vector PWM
• Instantaneous current control PWM
• Hysteresis band current control PWM
• Sigma-delta modulation
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Sinusoidal PWM
The most common PWM approach is
sinusoidal PWM. In this method a
triangular wave is compared to a
sinusoidal wave of the desired
frequency and the relative levels of the
two waves is used to control the
switching of devices in each phase leg
of the inverter.
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Sinusoidal PWM
(cont’d)
Single-Phase (Half-Bridge) Inverter
Implementation
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Sinusoidal PWM (cont’d)

when v
a0
> v
T
T
+
on; T
-
off; v
a0
= ½V
d

v
a0
< v
T
T
-
on; T
+
off; v
a0
= -½V
d

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Sinusoidal PWM
(cont’d)

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Sinusoidal PWM (cont’d)
Definition of terms:
Triangle waveform switching freq. = f
c
(also called
carrier freq.)
Control signal freq. = f (also called modulation
freq.)

Amplitude modulation ratio, m

= V
p

V
T

Frequency modulation ratio,
m
f
(P)= f
c
/ f

Peak amplitude
of control signal
Peak amplitude
of triangle wave
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Multiple Pulse-Width Modulation
• In multiple-pulse modulation, all pulses are
the same width
• Vary the pulse width according to the
amplitude of a sine wave evaluated at the
center of the same pulse
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Generate the gating signal
2 Reference Signals, v
r
, -v
r

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Comparing the carrier and reference signals
• Generate g
1
signal by comparison with v
r

• Generate g
4
signal by comparison with -v
r

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Comparing the carrier and reference signals
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Potential problem if Q
1
and Q
4
try to turn ON
at the same time!
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
If we prevent the problem
Output voltage is low when g
1
and g
4
are
both high
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
This composite signal is difficult to generate
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Generate the same gate pulses with one
sine wave
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Alternate scheme
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
rms output voltage
• Depends on the modulation index, M

2
1
p
m
o S S
m
p
V V V
o o
t t
=
¿ = ÷
Where δ
m
is the width of the mth pulse
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Fourier coefficients of the output voltage
( ) ( )
2
1
4 3
sin sin sin
4 4 4
1, 3, 5, ..
p
S m m m
n m m
m
V n
B n n
n
n
o o o
o t o
t
=
¿
(
= + ÷ + +
(
¸ ¸
=
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Harmonic Profile
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Compare with multiple-pulse case for p=5
Distortion Factor is considerably less
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Series-Resonant Inverter
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Operation
T
1
fired, resonant pulse of current
flows through the load. The current
falls to zero at t = t
1m
and T
1
is “self –
commutated”.
T
2
fired, reverse resonant current
flows through the load and T
2
is also
“self-commutated”.
The series resonant circuit must be
underdamped,
R
2
< (4L/C)
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Operation in Mode 1 – Fire T
1

1
1 1
1
1
(0)
(0) 0
(0)
C S
C C
di
L Ri i dt v V
dt C
i
v V
+ + + =
=
= ÷
}
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
2
1 1
1
2
2
2
1
1
0
1
( ) sin
1
4
( ) sin
2
R
t
L
r
r
s c
t r
t
s c
r
r
i t Ae t
R
LC L
V V di
A
dt L
V V
i t e t
L
R
L
o
e
e
e
e
e
o
÷
=
÷
=
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
+
= =
+
=
=
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
To find the time when the current is
maximum, set the first derivative = 0
( )
1
1
1
0
sin cos 0
.....
tan
tan
1
tan
2
t t
s c
r r r
r
r
r m
r m
r m
r
m
r
di
dt
V V
e t e t
L
t
t
t
t
o o
o e e e
e
e
e
o
e
e
o
e
e
÷ ÷
÷
÷
=
| |
+
÷ + =
|
\ .
=
=
=
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
To find the capacitor voltage, integrate the
current
( )
( )
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1 1
1
( ) ( )
1
( ) sin
...
( ) ( ) ( sin cos ) /
0 ( )
( )
r
t
C c
t
t
s c
C r C
r
t
C s C r r r r s
m
r
C m C s C s
v t i t dt V
C
V V
v t e t dt V
C L
v t V V e t t V
t t
v t V V V e V
o
o
ot
e
e
e
o e e e e
t
e
÷
÷
÷
= ÷
| |
+
= ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ + + +
s s
= = + +
}
}
The current i
1
becomes = 0 @ t=t
1m

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Operation in Mode 2 – T
1
, T
2
Both OFF
2 1
2 2 1
2
2
( ) 0
( )
( )
m
C C
C C C
i t
v t V
v t V V
=
=
= =
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
t
2m

EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
Operation in Mode 3 – Fire T
2

3
3 2 1
3
3 3
3
1
(0) 0
(0) 0
(0)
C
C C C
di
L Ri i dt v
dt C
i
v V V
+ + + =
=
= ÷ = ÷
}
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
1
3 1
1
3
3
3
0
3
( ) sin
1
( )
( sin cos )
( )
0 ( )
m
C
t
r
r
t
C C
t
C r r r
C
r
r
V
i t e t
L
v t i dt V
C
V e t t
v t
t t
o
o
e
e
o e e e
e
t
e
÷
÷
=
= ÷
÷ +
=
s s
}
EE1301 R.ESSAKI RAJ
3 3 1
1 1
1
1
3
1
( )
( ) ( )
.
.
1
1
1
r
m
r
m
C C C C
C C S C S
C S
z
z
C S
z
C S C
v t V V V e
v t V V V e V
V V
e
e
V V
e
V V V
t
o
e
t
o
e
÷
÷
= = =
= = + +
=
÷
=
÷
+ =