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The state of Art of DC-DC converters used in Hybrid Vehicles

Mayank Jalan IIT Roorkee EE-IDD 08212006

Contents
1 2 3 4C 5 6
Why Hybrid Vehicle?

Introduction

Types of Hybrid Vehicle

Components of Hybrid Vehicle

DC-DC converters

Conclusion
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Why Hybrid Vehicles are used?

•CO2 emission •Taxes •Depleting of natural resources •Price hike
source: [1]
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Introduction

 Power solely not supplied by just ICE engine  Electrical propulsion system along with ICE engine  Use of batteries, charger and ultracapacitor for electric energy  Benefit for both consumer and environment

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Degree of Hybridization

source: [2]

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Types

Conventional Vehicle

Parallel Hybrid Vehicle

Series Hybrid Vehicle

Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle

Power-Split Hybrid Vehicle

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Block Diagrams

Power SplitHybrid Conventional Hybrid Plug-InHybrid Parallel Hybrid Series Hybrid
source: [3]
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Components of Hybrid Vehicle
HV Battery Inverter

Auxiliary Battery Power Cable DC-DC converters Transaxle (including Electric motor)
source: [8]
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DC-DC converters
BiDirectional DC-DC Converter
Multi Input DC-DC converter

Dual Interleaved Boost Converter Flux Additivity based Multi Input Converter

Multi Input converter using high/low Voltage sources

Flying Capacitor Type Multilevel Converter

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3X Four Level Flying Capacitor Boost Converter

3X 2X 1X voltage configuration of Flying level canverter

source: [4]

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Four Level Flying Capacitor Boost Converter

Advantages
Voltage Stress
Low stress across switching devices

Low component count
six switching devices and three capacitors

Efficiency
3x converter without sacrificing efficiency (>97%)

Inductance
Reduces the Inductance Requirement

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Multiple Input Converter using High/Low voltage

Mode I (MH:on / ML:off)

Mode II (MH:off / ML:on)

Mode III (MH:off / ML:off)

Mode IV (MH:on / ML:on)

source: [5]

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Multiple Input Converter using High/Low voltage

High Efficiency

Advantages

Power from two voltage sources individually and simultaneously

Low Component count

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Multi-Input Converter Based On Flux Additivity

M1
V1 M3

M2

M4

D1

D3

D2

D4

M5

M6

V2
M7 M8

source: [6]

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Multiple Input Converter using High/Low voltage

High Efficiency

Advantages

Power from two voltage sources individually and simultaneously

ELECTRIC ISOLATION

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Two legged Dual-Interleaved Boost Converter

Advantages: 1. Much larger AC excitation in two inductor circuit leads to more magnetic loss 2. Efficiency of 94% at full load condition
source: [5]
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Conclusion

1.
2.

Hybrid Better solution to current conventional vehicle problems.
Efficiency as well as reliability are most important factors for selecting DC-DC converters.

3.

Switching Losses, and component requirements are considered for DC-DC converters.
Company spending lot of money on High current Boost converters i.e. fast battery charging.

4.

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References
1. 2. Santini, et al. (September 27, 2006) Energy and Petroleum Consumption Attributes of Plug-in Hybrids (PDF). Retrieved April 29, 2007. F. Z. Peng, “A Generalized Multilevel Inverter Topology with Self Voltage Balancing,” IEEE/IAS Annual Meeting, Oct. 8-12, Rome, Italy, 2000. J. S. Lai, F. Z. Peng, “Multilevel Converters – A New Breed of Power Converters,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 32, No. 3, May 1996, pp. 509-517. “3X DC-DC Multiplier/Divider for HEV Systems” Wei Qian, Fang Z. Peng, Miaosen Shen Michigan State University, and Leon M. Tolbert, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN “Review of Multiple Input DC-DC Converters for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles” Krishna P. Yalamanchili and Mehdi Ferdowsi, Member, IEEE, Power Electronics and Motor Drives Laboratory, University of Missouri-Rolla Krishna P. Yalamanchili and Mehdi Ferdowsi, Member, IEEE “Review of Multiple Input DC-DC Converters for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles” http://www.mitsubishiotors.com/corporate/about_us/technology/review/e/pdf/200 3/15E_10.pdf Administration, E.I. [Accessed on 2012 June 17]; Available from: “http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/quickfacts/quickoil.html”.
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