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Acid

Base

In everyday life we deal with compounds that chemists classify as acids. For example, orange and grapefruit juice contain acetic acid. These juices, and others, also contain ascorbic acid, a substance more commonly known as Vitamin C. Salads are often flavored with vinegar, which contains dilute acetic acid. Boric acid is a substance that is sometimes used to wash the eyes.

Soap. detergent bar. For example. .Also chemists classify a compound which is base.

We can find base such as. NaOH (sodium hydroxide). and nitric acid. we find acid such as hydrochloric acid. sulfuric acid. Mineral acid are generally stronger than household acids. and should be handled with great care because they can burn skin and clothing. KOH (potassium hydroxide). Because they can be prepared from naturally occurring compounds called minerals.In any chemistry laboratory. These acids are called mineral acids. .

General Properties of Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution .

our milk contain lactic acid. Other acid have similar taste.Aqueous solution of acid generally have the following properties: 1. vinegar is a solution approximately 5% of acetic acid. . which gives its sour taste. Citrus fruit have a Sour taste due to the citric acid found in them. Sour taste.

•Ability to turn blue litmus paper into red. Litmus paper is an indicator. Aqueous acids turn blue litmus paper into red: where as aqueous bases turn red litmus paper into blue. . •Neutralize bases. Acid reacts with bases. which is a substance whose color is changed by acids and bases.

Aqueous solutions of bases. •Turn red litmus paper into blue. •Neutralize acids . in general have the following properties: •Bitter taste •Soapy or slick feeling.

Zn BASES  Taste bitter  Turn litmus  Feel soapy or slippery (react with fats to make soap)  React with acids  React with bases blue to red red to blue .GENERAL PROPERTIES ACIDS  Taste sour  Turn litmus  React with active metals – Fe.

Neutralization in Use .

Indigestion If the stomach produces too much acid when digesting the food we eat. antacids that contain bases are taken as a remedy. An example of antacid is “milk of magnesia”. then the result is the pain of acid indigestion. . To neutralize the acids in the stomach. it contains magnesium hydroxide that neutralize the excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

farmer often add lime (calcium hydroxide).this neutralizes some of the acid in soil and increases the soil fertility. .Treatment for acidic soils The result of too much acid in soils results in poor growth and even death of plants. To neutralize the soils.

the acidity of lakes increases which leads to death of fish and plants. .Acidic Lakes Due to the acid rain. Sulfuric acid is the main acid present that is formed in the atmosphere due to the release of the sulfur gases from vehicles and industrial communities. Thus calcium hydroxide is added to the lakes to neutralize the acidic water.

a common acid-base indicator that is colorless in an acid. but turns bright pink in a basic solution. . •A neutral solution will not change the color of litmus paper. Phenolphthalein. There are several types of indicators.Acid Base Indicators Acid-base indicators are used to test for an acid or base. These are: Litmus Paper.an indicator used to test for an acid or base. •Red litmus paper turns blue in a basic solution. •Blue litmus paper turns red in an acidic solution. they are usually organic compounds that are different colors in acid or base solutions.

is a mixture of different indicators which covers the full range of pH values.Universal indicator. It is use to pinpoint the strength of an acid or base. . •The color for a basic solution is blur or purple colors. •The color for an acidic solution is red.

Ph meter.this is more accurate way to determine the pH of a solution. Use pH scale to further discussion. .

A pH above 7 means that a substance is basic. and the smaller the number. and the larger the number. the more basic it is.PH SCALE Is use to express how acidic (like an acid) or basic (like a base) a substance is. . he more acidic it is. A pH below 7 means that a substance is acidic.

8.5 .2 .5 .4.4 in Washington DC area pH 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0-14 scale for the chemists 2 3 4 5 acidic (H+) > (OH-) normal rain (CO2) pH = 5.7 neutral @ 25oC (H+) = (OH-) distilled water fish populations drop off pH < 6 and to zero pH < 5 basic or alkaline (H+) < (OH-) natural waters pH = 6.acid rain (NOx.3 – 5. SOx) pH of 4.

•Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein to test the solution. dishwashing liquid for test tube 3. . •Test the solution using the red and blue litmus paper. orange juice for test tube 4) solutions. water for test tube 2.EXPERIMENT TIME Procedure •Place 3 ml of (vinegar for Test tube 1.

2. 3. acid and base? How acid and base affect our daily life? . What have you learned in our topic? Why we need to study.Generalization 1.

RED LITMUS PAPER TURNED BLUE B. 1. WHAT HAPPEN TO A RED LITMUS PAPER WHEN DRAWN TO A BASE SOLUTION? A. A TASTE OF AN ACID? A. RED LITMUS PAPER DID NOT REACT C. RED LITMUS PAPER TURNED PINK. BITTER B. SWEET C.CHOOSE THE LETTER OF THE BEST ANSWER. . SOUR 2.

A. MANY SUBSTANCES THAT WE USE DAILY CONTAIN ACID AND BASES. UNIVERSAL INDICATOR C. NEUTRAL . ITS UNDERGO REACTION B. 4. BASE B. NONE OF THE ABOVE. THIS IS MORE ACCURATE WAY TO DETERMINE THE PH OF A SOLUTION. 7 INDICATE WHAT? A. C. PH METER 5. ACID C.A. LITMUS PAPER B. IN A PH SCALE.

c . c 5. c 2. a 3.Answer: 1. b 4.

Assignment  Lists some acids and bases and state their uses. .