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**STEP BY STEP GUIDE
**

1. Formulate the problem (i) Pick out important information (ii) Formulate constraints (iii) Formulate objective function Introduce slack variables

Form initial tableau Obtain new tableaux (i) Identify pivotal column (ii) Find θ-values (iii) Identify pivotal row (iv) Identify pivot (v) Pivot Get the solution

2.

3. 4.

5.

THE PROBLEM

• A small factory produces two types of toys: cars and diggers. In the manufacturing process two machines are used: the moulder and the colouriser. A digger needs 2 hours on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser. A car needs 1 hour on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser. The moulder can be operated for 16 hours a day and the colouriser for 9 hours a day. Each digger gives a profit of £16 and each car gives a profit of £14. The profit needs to be maximised.

• How do we formulate this problem?

**STEP BY STEP GUIDE
**

1. Formulate the problem (i) pick out important information (ii) formulate constraints (iii) formulate objective function Introduce slack variables Form initial tableau Obtain new tableaux Get the solution

2. 3. 4. 5.

In the manufacturing process two machines are used: the moulder and the colouriser. . A car needs 1 hour on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser. • A digger needs 2 hours on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser.PICKING OUT IMPORTANT INFORMATION • A small factory produces two types of toys: cars and diggers. • Each digger gives a profit of £16 and each car gives a profit of £14. • The moulder can be operated for 16 hours a day and the colouriser for 9 hours a day.

. A car needs 1 hour on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser. • The moulder can be operated for 16 hours a day and the colouriser for 9 hours a day.PICKING OUT IMPORTANT INFORMATION • A small factory produces two types of toys: cars and diggers. • Each digger gives a profit of £16 and each car gives a profit of £14. In the manufacturing process two machines are used: the moulder and the colouriser. • A digger needs 2 hours on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser.

• A digger needs 2 hours on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser. A car needs 1 hour on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser. .

.PICKING OUT IMPORTANT INFORMATION • A small factory produces two types of toys: cars and diggers. • The moulder can be operated for 16 hours a day and the colouriser for 9 hours a day. In the manufacturing process two machines are used: the moulder and the colouriser. • Each digger gives a profit of £16 and each car gives a profit of £14.

A car needs 1 hour on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser. . • The moulder can be operated for 16 hours a day and the colouriser for 9 hours a day.• A digger needs 2 hours on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser.

3. . Formulate the problem (i) pick out important information (ii) formulate constraints (iii) formulate objective function Introduce slack variables Form initial tableau Obtain new tableaux Get the solution 2.STEP BY STEP GUIDE 1. 4. 5.

• The moulder can be operated for 16 hours a day and the colouriser for 9 hours a day. • Using the decision variables d = number of diggers c = number of cars make two constraints from this information. A car needs 1 hour on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser. .• A digger needs 2 hours on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser.

• The moulder can be operated for 16 hours a day and the colouriser for 9 hours a day.FORMING CONSTRAINT 1 THE MOULDER • A digger needs 2 hours on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser. A car needs 1 hour on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser. 2d + c ≤ 16 .

• The moulder can be operated for 16 hours a day and the colouriser for 9 hours a day. d+c≤9 . A car needs 1 hour on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser.FORMING CONSTRAINT 2 THE COLOURISER • A digger needs 2 hours on the moulder and 1 hour on the colouriser.

5. Formulate the problem (i) pick out important information (ii) formulate constraints (iii) formulate objective function Introduce slack variables Form initial tableau Obtain new tableaux Get the solution 2. 4. 3.STEP BY STEP GUIDE 1. .

PICKING OUT IMPORTANT INFORMATION • A small factory produces two types of toys: cars and diggers. . • Each digger gives a profit of £16 and each car gives a profit of £14. In the manufacturing process two machines are used: the moulder and the colouriser.

formulate the objective function .FORMING THE OBJECTIVE FUNCTION • Each digger gives a profit of £16 and each car gives a profit of £14. • Let Z be the total profit.

Z = 16d + 14c .FORMING THE OBJECTIVE FUNCTION • Each digger gives a profit of £16 and each car gives a profit of £14.

d≥0 • • VERY IMPORTANT DON’T FORGET YOUR NON – NEGATIVITY CONSTRAINTS ! .THE LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM • MAXIMISE Z = 16d + 14c subject to the constraints: (i) 2d + c ≤ 16 (ii) d+c≤ 9 (iii) c≥0.

Form initial tableau 4. Introduce slack variables 3. Get the solution .STEP BY STEP GUIDE 1. Obtain new tableaux 5. Formulate the problem 2.

INTRODUCING SLACK VARIABLES To change inequalities (i) and (ii) into equations we add slack variables s and t This gives: (i) (ii) 2d + c + s = 16 d+c+t = 9 .

THE NEW LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEM • MAXIMISE Z = 16d + 14c + 0s + 0t subject to the constraints: 2d + c + s + 0t = 16 d + c + 0s + t = 9 c≥0.t≥0 .d≥0.s≥0.

Introduce slack variables 3. Obtain new tableaux 5. Get the solution .STEP BY STEP GUIDE 1. Form initial tableau 4. Formulate the problem 2.

This is called the initial tableau. To form the initial tableau we need to change the objective function from Z = 16d + 14c + 0s + 0t to Z – 16d – 14c – 0s – 0t = 0 .We want to put all the information in the form of a table.

FORMING THE INITIAL TABLEAU Label the table with your basic variables. s and t and with your non – basic variables. BASIC VARIABLES d c s t VALUE s t Z . d and c.

FORMING THE INITIAL TABLEAU 2d + 1c + 1s + 0t = 16 1d + 1c + 0s + 1t = 9 Z – 16d – 14c – 0s – 0t = 0 BASIC VARIABLES d c s t VALUE s t 2 1 -16 1 1 -14 1 0 0 0 1 0 16 9 0 Z .

FORMING THE INITIAL TABLEAU BASIC VARIABLES d 2 1 -16 c 1 1 -14 s 1 0 0 t 0 1 0 VALUE s t Z 16 9 0 This is the objective row .

. 2. 4. Formulate the problem Introduce slack variables Form initial tableau Obtain new tableaux (i) Identify pivotal column (ii) Find θ-values (iii) Identify pivotal row (iv) Identify pivot (v) Pivot Get the solution 3. 3.STEP BY STEP GUIDE 1.

. d is now called the entering variable. BASIC VARIABLES d 2 1 -16 c 1 1 -14 s 1 0 0 t 0 1 0 VALUE s t Z 16 9 0 This is the most negative coefficient with corresponding variable d and it’s column is called the pivotal column.PIVOTAL COLUMN • We now need to find where to pivot and we start by entering the basis by choosing the column with the most negative entry in the objective row.

3. . Formulate the problem Introduce slack variables Form initial tableau Obtain new tableaux (i) Identify pivotal column (ii) Find θ-values (iii) Identify pivotal row (iv) Identify pivot (v) Pivot Get the solution 3.STEP BY STEP GUIDE 1. 2. 4.

• You need to find θ-values.FINDING θ-VALUES • You are now going to find the pivotal row and the leaving variable. Identify positive entries in the pivotal column. BASIC VARIABLES d c s t VALUE s t Z 2 1 -16 1 1 -14 1 0 0 0 1 0 16 9 0 . Divide each entry in value column by the corresponding positive entry in the pivotal column. 2. 1.

4. 3. 2. .STEP BY STEP GUIDE 1. Formulate the problem Introduce slack variables Form initial tableau Obtain new tableaux (i) Identify pivotal column (ii) Find θ-values (iii) Identify pivotal row (iv) Identify pivot (v) Pivot Get the solution 5.

• Here the pivotal row is row (i) .PIVOTAL ROW • • For row (i) For row (ii) = 16 2 9 1 8 9 • The row with the smallest θ-value is called the pivotal row.

Formulate the problem Introduce slack variables Form initial tableau Obtain new tableaux (i) Identify pivotal column (ii) Find θ-values (iii) Identify pivotal row (iv) Identify pivot (v) Pivot Get the solution 5.STEP BY STEP GUIDE 1. 3. . 4. 2.

THE PIVOT The pivot! BASIC VARIABLES d 2 1 -16 c 1 1 s 1 0 0 t 0 1 0 VALUE s The pivotal row 16 9 0 t Z -14 The pivotal column .

4. 2. Formulate the problem Introduce slack variables Form initial tableau Obtain new tableaux (i) Identify pivotal column (ii) Find θ-values (iii) Identify pivotal row (iv) Identify pivot (v) Pivot Get a solution 5. . 3.STEP BY STEP GUIDE 1.

PIVOTING 1. Replace the leaving variable with the entering variable. apart from the pivot. The pivot becomes 1. 2. Divide all entries in the pivotal row by the pivot. in the pivotal column are zero. . 3. Add suitable multiples of the pivotal row to all other rows until all entries.

d 2 1 -16 c 1 1 -14 s 1 0 0 t 0 1 0 VALUE BASIC VARIABLES s 16 9 0 t Z Step 2 . BASIC VARIABLES d 1 c 1/2 s 1/2 t 0 VALUE s d 8 t Z .Replace the leaving variable with the entering variable.Divide all entries in the pivotal row by the pivot. The pivot becomes 1.Step 1 .

Add suitable multiples of the pivotal row to all other rows until all entries.PIVOTING BASIC VARIABLES d 2 1 -16 c 1 1 -14 s 1 0 0 t 0 1 0 VALUE s t Z 16 9 0 Step 3 . in the pivotal column are zero. row (ii) – ½ row (i) gives t 0 1/2 -1/2 1 1 . apart from the pivot.

PIVOTING BASIC VARIABLES d c s t VALUE d t Z 1 0 1/2 1/2 1/2 -1/2 0 1 8 1 .

PIVOTING BASIC VARIABLES d 2 1 -16 c 1 1 -14 s 1 0 0 t 0 1 0 VALUE s t Z 16 9 0 Step 3 . apart from the pivot. row (iii) + 8 row (i) gives Z 0 -6 8 0 128 .Add suitable multiples of the pivotal row to all other rows until all entries. in the pivotal column are zero.

BASIC VARIABLES d c s t VALUE d t Z 1 0 0 1/2 1/2 -6 1/2 -1/2 8 0 1 0 8 1 128 This is our second tableau .

• This will be your final tableau. .PIVOTING • Follow the rules for finding a pivot on your second tableau. • Continue this process until there are no negative entries in the objective row. • Pivot as before. This is called the optimal tableau.

OPTIMAL TABLEAU BASIC VARIABLES d 1 0 0 c 0 1 0 s 1 -1 2 t -1 2 12 VALUE d c Z 7 2 140 • Note there are no negative entries in the objective row. • Can you see the solution? .

Introduce slack variables 3. Form initial tableau 4. Obtain new tableaux 5.STEP BY STEP GUIDE 1. Get the solution . Formulate the problem 2.

t = 0. d=7 c=2 Z = 140 . • This corresponds to the solution: s = 0.OBTAINING THE SOLUTION BASIC VARIABLES d 1 0 0 c 0 1 0 s 1 -1 2 t -1 2 12 VALUE d c 7 2 140 Z • Remember that since s and t are now non–basic variables they are set to zero.

THE SOLUTION • Don’t forget to put your solution back into the context of the problem. . Z = 140 d=7 c=2 • The maximum profit is £140 • To make this profit the factory should produce 7 diggers and 2 cars.

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