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# Analysis of Turbofan Engine

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
Two Dissimilar Jets…… Pushing the Aircraft…..
Who is Strong ? The Situation Will Decide….
Inlet
Ideal Turbofan Cycle
total
m
1
2
3
4
5 6
7h
7c
Total thrust is generated by both cold and hot jets..
core
m
fan
m
fan
m
total
m
core
m
core
m
Ideal Turbo Jet Cycle for Core Stream
T
1
4
5
6
s
3
7
2
Ideal Turbo Jet Cycle for Core Stream
s
p
1
4 5
6
7
2
3
Ideal Turbo Jet Cycle for Fan Stream
T
1
3
p
s
1
3
s
2
7c
2
7c
T
0
1,2
3
s
7c
p
0
1,2
3,7c
s
Sharing of Air between Fan & Compressor
air fan core
m m m = +
The ratio of the fan flow to the core flow is defined
as the bypass ratio.
fan
core
m
m
o =
Inlet
Ideal Turbofan Engine
1
2
core fan air
m m m
  
+ =
core
fan
m
m

= o
( ) o + = 1
core air
m m
 
air
m

fan
m

core
m

Analysis of fan
·
=
0 , 0 03
p r p
fan p
·
=
0 , 0 03
T T
fan p
t
Inlet
1
2 3
air
m

fan
m

core
m

( ) ( )
03 0
1 T T c m W
p core
fan
÷ + = ¬
·
-
o

Design Parameter : Stagnation pressure ratio
( ) ( )
fan p p core
fan
T c m W
, 0 0
1 1 t o ÷ + = ¬
·
-

Analysis of Compressor
·
=
0 , 0 , 0 04
p r r p
comp p fan p
·
=
0 , 0 , 0 04
T T
comp p fan p
t t
( )
comp p fan p p
core compressor
T c m W
, 0 , 0 0
1 t t ÷ = ¬
·
- -
Inlet
Design Parameter : Stagnation
pressure ratio
1
2 3
air
m

fan
m

core
m

4
( )
04 03
T T c m W
p core
compressor
÷ = ¬
-

Combined Gas Dynamic & Thermodynamic SSSF model for
Constant pressure combustor:

Total pressure will remain constant.

Total temperature will increase : Energy induction at constant life.

The entropy will also increase : Only ideal device which enhances
the entropy of working fluid.
( ) ( )
04 05
1 T T f c m Q
p core comb
÷ + = ¬
-

·
=
0 , 0 05
T T
cc
t
·
= =
0 , 0 , 0 04 05
p r r p p
comp p fan p
Inlet
1
2 3
air
m

fan
m

core
m

4
5
( ) ( )
comp p fan p cc p core fuel
f T c m V H m
, 0 , 0 , 0 0
1 . . t t t ÷ + = ¬
·
 
( )
cc
p
comp p fan p cc
T c
V H
f
, 0
0
, 0 , 0 , 0
. .
t
t t t
÷
÷
=
·
( ) ( )
comp p fan p cc p
f T c V H f
, 0 , 0 , 0 0
1 . . t t t ÷ + = × ¬
·
( ) ( )
comp p fan p cc
p
f
T c
V H
f
, 0 , 0 , 0
0
1
. .
t t t ÷ + = × ¬
·
Combined Gas Dynamic & Thermodynamic SSSF model for Turbine
( ) ( )
06 05
1 T T c f m W
p core
turbine
÷ + = ¬
- -
Inlet
1
2 3
air
m

fan
m

core
m

4
5
5
turb p cc turb p
T T T
, 0 0 , 0 , 0 05 06
t t t
·
= = ¬
·
= = =
0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 04 , 0 05 06
p r r r r p r p p
fan p comp p turb p turb p turb p
( ) ( )
turb p cc p core
turbine
T c f m W
, 0 0 , 0
1 1 t t ÷ + = ¬
·
- -
1
, 0 , 0
÷
=
¸
¸
t
turb p turb p
r
Theory of Jet Propulsion : Just Enough Work
The power inputs to the compressor & fan = The power
output of the turbine
turbine fan compressor
W W W
- - -
= + ¬
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
turb p cc p
core
fan p p
core
comp p fan p p
core
T c f m
T c m T c m
, 0 0 , 0
, 0 0 , 0 , 0 0
1 1
1 1 1
t t
t o t t
÷ + =
÷ + + ÷
·
-
·
-
-
·
-
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
turb p cc fan p comp p fan p
f
, 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0
1 1 1 1 1 t t t o t t ÷ + = ÷ + + ÷
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
turb p cc fan p comp p fan p
f
, 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0
1 1 1 1 1 t t t o t t ÷ + = ÷ + + ÷
( ) ( )( )
( )
cc
fan p comp p fan p
turb p
f
, 0
, 0 , 0 , 0
, 0
1
1 1 1
1
t
t o t t
t
+
÷ + + ÷
÷ =
·
= =
0 , 0 , 0 , 0 05 06
T T T
turb p cc turb p
t t t
( ) ( )( )
( )
·
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+
÷ + + ÷
÷ = =
0
, 0
, 0 , 0 , 0
, 0 , 0 05 06
1
1 1 1
1 T
f
T T
cc
fan p comp p fan p
cc turb p
t
t o t t
t t
Combined Gas Dynamic & Thermodynamic SSSF model for Hot
Nozzle
( ) ( )
h
core core
h f m h f m
07 06
1 1 + = +
- -
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+ = =
2
7 7
2
6 6 07 06
2
1
1
2
1
1 M T M T T T
h h
¸ ¸
06
2
7 7
2
1
1 T M T
h h
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
¸
( ) ( )( )
( )
·
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+
÷ + + ÷
÷ =
0
, 0
, 0 , 0 , 0
, 0 06
1
1 1 1
1 T
f
T
cc
fan p comp p fan p
cc
t
t o t t
t
( ) ( )( )
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷ + + ÷
÷
=
·
2
7
0
, 0
, 0 , 0 , 0
, 0
7
2
1
1
1
1 1 1
1
h
cc
fan p comp p fan p
cc
h
M
T
f
T
¸
t
t o t t
t
Available life at the inlet to the nozzle will decide the
magnitude of T
7h
.
·
÷
= =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+ =
0 , 0 , 0 , 0 06
1
2
7 7 07
2
1
1 p r r r p M p p
turb p comp p fan p h h h
¸
¸
¸
·
÷
·
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
0 , 0 , 0 , 0
1
2
7
2
1
1 p r r r M p
turb p comp p fan p h
¸
¸
¸
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
=
÷
·
·
1
1
2
1
0
, 0 , 0 , 0 7
¸
¸
¸ p
p
r r r M
turb p comp p fan p h
( ) ( )( )
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷ + + ÷
÷
=
·
2
7
0 , 0
, 0
, 0 , 0 , 0
7
2
1
1
1
1 1 1
1
h
cc
cc
fan p comp p fan p
h
M
T
f
T
¸
t
t
t o t t
( ) ( )( )
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷ + + ÷
÷
=
÷
·
·
·
¸
¸
t
t
t o t t
1
0
, 0 , 0 , 0
0 , 0
, 0
, 0 , 0 , 0
7
1
1 1 1
1
p
p
r r r
T
f
T
turb p comp p fan p
cc
cc
fan p comp p fan p
h
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
= =
·
·
1
1
2
0
, 0 , 0 , 0 7 7 7 7
T
T
RT RT M V
turb p comp p fan p h h h h
t t t
¸
¸ ¸
( ) ( )( )
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷ + + ÷
÷
=
·
·
·
T
T
T
f
T
turb p comp p fan p
cc
cc
fan p comp p fan p
h
0
, 0 , 0 , 0
0 , 0
, 0
, 0 , 0 , 0
7
1
1 1 1
1
t t t
t
t
t o t t
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
·
·
·
1
1
2
0
, 0 , 0 , 0
, 0 , 0
, 0
7
T
T
RT V
turb p comp p fan p
comp p fan p
cc
h
t t t
¸ t t
t
¸
comp p fan p
cc
h
T
T
, 0 , 0
, 0
7
t t
t
·
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
·
·
·
T
T
T
T
turb p comp p fan p
turb p cc
h
0
, 0 , 0 , 0
0 , 0 , 0
7
t t t
t t
2
0
2
1
1
ac
M
T
T ÷
+ =
·
·
¸
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
·
·
·
1
1
2
0
, 0 , 0 , 0
, 0 , 0
, 0
7
T
T
c V
turb p comp p fan p
comp p fan p
cc
h
t t t
¸ t t
t
(
¸
(

¸

÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
·
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
, 0 , 0 , 0
, 0 , 0
, 0
7 ac turb p comp p fan p
comp p fan p
cc
h
M c V
¸
t t t
¸ t t
t
Combined Gas Dynamic & Thermodynamic SSSF model for Cold
Nozzle
c
core core
h m h m
07 03
o o
- -
= ·
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
0 , 0
2
7 7
2
1
1 T M T
fan p c c
t
¸
·
= ¬ T T
c 7
1
0 , 0
03
1
03
03 7
÷
·
·
÷
·
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
p r
p
T
p
p
T T
fan p
c
1
0 , 0
0 , 0 7
÷
·
·
·
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¸
¸
t
p r
p
T T
fan p
fan p c
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
= =
·
·
·
1
1
2
0
, 0 7 7 7
T
T
RT RT M V
fan p c c c
t
¸
¸ ¸
·
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
0 , 0
2
7 7
2
1
1 T M T
fan p c c
t
¸
·
·
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
T
T
M
fan p c
0
, 0
2
7
2
1
1 t
¸
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
=
·
·
1
1
2
0
, 0
2
7
T
T
M
fan p c
t
¸
(
¸
(

¸

÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
÷
= =
·
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
, 0 7 7 7 ac fan p c c c
M c RT M V
¸
t
¸
¸
(
¸
(

¸

÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
·
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
, 0 , 0 , 0
, 0 , 0
, 0
7 ac turb p comp p fan p
comp p fan p
cc
h
M c V
¸
t t t
¸ t t
t
Generation of Thrust : The Capacity
( ) { } { }
1 7 1 7
, , ,
1 V V m V V f m
F F F
c core h core
corestream T fanstream T total T
÷ + ÷ + =
+ =
o
 
Propulsive Power or Thrust Power:
ac total T p
V F P
,
=
Specific Thrust based on core flow S
core
total T
core
m
F
S

,
=
Specific Thrust based on total flow S
( ) o +
=
1
,
core
total T
total
m
F
S

Thrust Ratio
Ratio of specific thrust of core stream to specific thrust of
fan stream.
fan
core
fan
fan
core
core
F
F
m
F
m
F
FR o = =

Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption TSFC
total T
fuel
F
m
TSFC
,

=
( ) { } { }
( ) { } { }
1 7 1 7
1 7 1 7
1
1
V V V V f
f
V V m V V f m
m
TSFC
c h
c core h core
fuel
÷ + ÷ +
=
÷ + ÷ +
=
o
o
 

Aviation Appreciation
Propulsion Efficiency
Jet the of Power Kinetic Available
Power Thrust
propulsion
= q
( ) { } { }
2
1
2
7
2
1
2
7
1 ,
2
1
2
V V
m
V V f
m
V F
c
core
h
core
total T
propulsion
÷ + ÷ +
=
o
q
 
( ) { } { }
2
1
2
7
2
1
2
7
1
1
2
V V V V f
V S
c h
core
propulsion
÷ + ÷ +
=
o
q
Performance Analysis of Turbofan
• Operational Parameters : Flight Mach number & Ambient
conditions.
• Design Variables : Fan Pressure Ratio, Bypass Ratio,
Compressor Pressure Ratio, Combustion Chamber
Temperature Ratio.
• Fan Effects :
• Fan Pressure Ratio
• Bypass Ratio.
• Fan Stream Thrust Vs Total Thrust.