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• The process of seeking and attracting a pool of people from which qualified candidates for job vacancies' can be chosen. • It is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organizations. • It is the process of getting the right kind of people to apply for the vacancies in the organization.

Factors affecting recruitment
• • • • • Organizational factors: Reputation Culture Geographical location of the vacancy The channels and methods used to advertise the vacancy also determine the success of the recruitment program • The emoluments that the company offers also influence the decision of the candidate.

• Environmental factors: • The situation in the labour market, the demand for the manpower, the demographics, the knowledge and skill set available. • The stage of development of the industry to which the organization belongs • Legal implications also play a role in designing the recruitment policy

Sources of recruitment
• • • • • • Internal search External sources Advertisements Employee referrals Employment agencies Interested applicants

Recruitment process
• Human Resource Planning • Identify the human resource requirement • Determine the number, levels and criticality of the vacancies • Choose the resources and methods of recruitment • Analyze the cost and time involved Job analysis • Start implementing the policy • Select and hire the candidate • Evaluate the program

Evaluation of the recruitment program
• • • • • • The number of successful placements The number of hiring's The numaber of offers made The number of applicants The cost involved The time taken in filling the candidate


• The process of choosing the most suitable candidate for a job from among the available applicants is called selection. • It is the process of evaluating the qualifications, experience ,skills, knowledge, of an applicant in relation to the requirement of the job to determine his suitability for the job.

• To predict which applicant would be most successful if selected for the job • To sell the organization and the job to the right candidate.

Organization al objectives

Job Design(job description
Job specification Competency Modelling


• • • • • • • • • • Resume/CV Review Initial Screening Interviews Analyze the Application Blank Conducting Test and evaluating the performance Preliminary Interviews Core and Departmental Interview Reference Checks Job Offer Medical Examination Placements

Selection Method Standards
• RELIABILITY: A selection method is considered to be reliable, if it produces consistent results across different situations and time • It is done by one of the following methods • The repeat or retest approach( the candidate takes the same test after a gap of 2-3 weeks)

• The alternate form or parallel form method: Two similar but separate forms are given at the same time to the candidates • The split halves procedure: A test is divided in to two parts and given to the candidates. The degree of similarity in scoring in these two parts determine the reliability of the test.

• VALIDITY: The validity of the selection method is the degree to which success in the test reflects success in the job. There are three methods: • Criterion validity: It refers to the correlation between scores on a measure in the selection method and the scores on the corresponding measures of the job performance.

• Content validity: content validity is the extent to which the content of a selection procedure or instrument is representative of important aspect of the job performance • Construct validity: It is the extent to which a selection method measure the degree of identifiable characteristic in the candidate.

• Generalizability: It is defined as the degree to which its validity, established in one context can be extended to other primary context. • Utility: It is the degree to which the value provided by the selection method enhances the effectiveness of an organization.

• Legality: legality is the basic standard that any selection method should satisfy. Every selection method should comply with the existing laws and legal precedents prevalent in the country.

• Application Forms: An application form complete in all respects filled up by the person seeking the job is normally the beginning of the selection procedure. • An application form is also referred to as application blank, is a formal record of an individual appeal or intention for employment.

• Some of the items that appear on the application form are: • Personal information/: gender, dob, name, address, marital status, details of the family, annual income. • Educational information: School, colleges and institutes attended. Subjects studied, percentages of marks obtained.

• Work experience: previous jobs, task activities and the responsibilities of the applicant and the salaries drawn. In some cases the reason for leaving is also mentioned. • Salary: salary drawn from the last job including benefits. • Personality items: strength and weakness, his goal and ambitions, hobbies and interests. • Reference checks: the name and address of the individuals who can be contacted for the reference check

Evaluation of the APPLICATION FROM
• Clinical method: In this method of evaluation all the information furnished by the applicant in the application form is analyzed and inferences are made about the applicants personality. Based on this assessed personality, his success in th job is predicted. • The following qualities are analyzed leadership skills, emotional stability, assertiveness, attitude towards his work and his superior.

• Weighted method: It is a statistical technique. In this method certain points or weights are assigned to each item in the application form. The Weighted application form should differentiate between the characteristics of successful and unsuccessful employees.

Selection test
• • • • • • • • Intelligence test Aptitude test Achievement test Situational test Interest test Personality test Polygraph test Graphology

• • • • • Preliminary Interviews Selection Interviews Stress interview Group interview Indepth interview

The interview process
• • • • • • • • Preperation Setting Conduct of the interview Closing the interview Evaluation Refrence checks Medical examination Placement

• Placement

• Once the candidate accepts the offer letter and joins, the organization has to place him in the job for which ha has been selected. • It is matching of the job requirement with the selected candidate. • A proper placement of an employee leads to low employee turnover, low absenteeism and improved morale and commitment of the employees.

• • • •

After selection Induction (period of familiarization) Probation period (6-2years) Final placement( after evaluating his/her performance) • Not satisfactory-------- Quit • Satisfactory--------Permanent employee.

• When an employee joins the organization he has to adapt to the new environment. • This process of adaption is called as induction/orientation. • It means socialization of a new employee.

• Process of orientation includes: • Introduction of the employees to the organization and to his work unit. • It reduces the initial anxiety. • Helps to become familiar with the organization. history, objectives, procedures, rules) • Provides information regarding personal policies( working hours, pay procedure)

• Information about specific duties and responsibilities. • Introduce to his co workers and the superior and subordinate.

• To make the individual feel welcome in the organization • To create the positive impression of the employer. • To reinforce the confidence of the employee • To reduce the time taken by the employee to adapt to the new environment

• To put the employee at ease • To benefit the organization

• “ The systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job” Michael Armstrong • “The act of increasing knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job” B. Flippo • A successful training program improves the performance of the employee which in turn improves the performance of the organization.

• Improving employee performance: it helps the employee to do the job faster and ensures better performance. • Updating Employee skills: Technological changes may result in changes in the job related to the task and activities involved. Training helps the employee to update their skills and hence adapt to chnages.

• Avoiding Managerial Obsolescence: Mo is the failure to adopt to the new methods and processes that can improve employee and organizational effectiveness. • Preparing for Managerial Succession and promotion: Training helps the employees to acquire the skills required to assume greater responsibilities

• Retaining and motivating the employees: One way to motivate and retain employees is through systematic program of career development and planning. • Creating an efficient and effective organization: an organization who has well trained and well equipped employees needs to spend less time on supervising them as a result organization become effective and efficient

Assessing Training needs
• Determining the organizational goal • Prioritizing the task in meeting these goals • Determining the skills required by the employees • Identifying the deficiencies in the skills and the knowledge levels of employees.

Areas of Training
• Company policies and procedure: An employee should acquaint himself with the organization rules, practices, processes and procedures. • Skill based Training: Employees are given this training to match the skill requirements of the job they perform. • Human Relation Training: This type of training is given to manage and maintain their relationships with their colleagues, superiors and external agents.

• Problem Solving Training: Training in problem solving skills equips an employee to deal successfully with operational problem. • Managerial or supervisory Training: Giving training in the managerial functions help the employees to move ahead in career paths.

Employee Training Methods
On the Job Training

Job Instruction


Job Rotation

Committee assignments

• It takes place in a real jo environment where the trainee is exposed to an eactual work situation. • Advantage: • Real hand on experience • Direct learning • Better application of knowledge and skills • Disadvantage: • Trainee is undergoing the learning process, therefore any mistake might result in the loss of the organization

• Job Instruction: In this method, the trainees is given instructions by the trainer while performing the jib on the site and any doubts of the trainee are cleared immediately. • Demonstrations by the trainer and repeated practices buy the trainee help him to master the job.

• Apprenticeship : Individuals seeking to enter skilled trades, are required to go through formal apprenticeship under experienced employees, before they join as regular employees. • The period may range from 1- 5 years.

• Job Rotation: In this method the trainee is placed on various jobs across different functions in the organization. The trainee gains cross functional knowledge and is equipped to take up different jobs. • Time period range from 1- several weeks

• Committee assignments: In this the employees are given an actual problem and are asked to find the solution. The trainee develops the team management skills, interpersonal skills, communication skills and problem solving skills.


Class Room lectures

Simulation Exercises Programmed instructions

Case method

Experimental exercises

Computer modeling

Vestibule training

Role playing

• It refers to the training imparted away from employees immediate work area. • The employee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused exclusively on learning. • Advantage: • Employee is free from any distractions. • Better concentration

• Class room lectures: This widely used to help the employees understand the rules , procedures and policies of the organization. • Simulation Exercises: In this method the trainee is exposed to an artificial work situation that closely resemble the actual work situation.

• Case method: Real life problem is presented to the trainee in the form of the case study. They are then asked to analyze the case and present their views and recommendations. • Experimental exercises: In this the trainer stimulates situations where the employees are exposed to actual work problems.

• Computer modeling: It is a technique whereby the dimensions of the job are programmed in to the computer. • Vestibule training: In this method the actual work conditions are simulated and the equipment used by the trainee is similar to what is used on the job. • Role playing:It is described as the method of human interactions involving realistic behaviour in imaginary situations.

• Programmed instructions: In this methid the trainee is given the series of the questions after he studies the relevant material required for the accomplisment of the job.

Evaluation of training
• Feedback • Knowledge and learning acquired y the trainees • Changes in the job performance • Measurable improvements


• Management Develpoment relates to the development and growth of the employees in an organization. • It helps in the development of: • Intellectual • Managerial • People management Skills • Key component---- Helps the employee to face new challenges.

• Improving the performance of the managers • Enabling the senior managers to have an overall perspective about the organization and also equipping them with the necessary skills to coordinate various units of the organization. • Identifying employees with executive talent and developing them so that they can occupy managerial position in the future.

• Motivating the managers to perform more effectively in accordance with the organizational goals. • Updating maangers from time to time about the latest changes and development in their respective fields. • Improving the analytical and the logical skills of the employees.

Management development

On the job method

Off the job method


Job Rotation

Under study

Multiple Mnagement


Transactional Analysis

Sensitivity training



• ON THE JOB METHODS: The development methods which help the employee to improve his skills in the actual work environment, during the course of his work. • Coaching: Coaching involves one manager playing an active role in guiding another manager. The coach observes, analyzes and attempts to improve the performance of the trainee. the coach gives guidance in the form of direction, advice, criticism and suggestion.

• Job rotation: It means placing the manager to new jobs across various department in the organization, as a result he develops diversified skills and knowledge. • Understudy assignments: In this method a senior manager selects and trains a trainee manager from among his. her subordinates, who at future time will be capable of handling the senior managers responsibilities.

• Multiple management: This method enables junior manager to participate in board and committee meetings, which are normally attended on by senior and top level managers. These sessions expose junior managers to discussions that take place in such meetings regarding organizational problems and strategies.

• • • • • • Simulation Exercises: Case study Business games Role plays Incident method: In basket

• Sensitivity Training: Also known as laboratory training. • It is a method of changing individual behavior through unstructured group interactions. • The main objective is to develop among the group members, an understanding of themselves and of their relationship with others.

• In this method 10-15 employees assemble in an unstructured manner, The group does not have a leader, or planned agenda or goal. A case study or role play is given to initiate the interaction and after socialization the members are asked to discuss the attitudes, reactions and behavior of each participant.

• Advantages • They learn about their strength and weaknesses • They learn to be sensitive and empathetic toward others. • They come to know as how other people in their group perceive them • Conflicts are reduced.

Transactional Analysis
Parent Ego state Superiority and authority Dominating and authoritative

Child Ego State


Adult Ego state

Realistic or practical

Obedient or manipulative, charming or repulsive Objective and rational

• Conferences: A meeting of people to discuss a topic of common interest is referred to as conference. • The method is useful when problem had to be studied and analyzed from different viewpoints.

• Lectures: It is the simplest technique of presenting and explaining a series of facts, principle and concepts. • The lecturer organizes the relevant information and presents it to the trainee in the form of the lecture. • It helps the manager to develop their conceptual and analytical skills.